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Small and medium size enterprise financing in Eastern Europe

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Author Info

  • Klapper, Leora
  • Sarria-Allende, Virginia
  • Sulla, Victor

Abstract

There is currently a large interest in understanding firms'access to finance, particularly in the financing of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). But the financing patterns of SMEs across countries is not well understood. For example, little is known about the relative importance of equity, debt, and inter-firm financing for SMEs across countries. The authors use the Amadeus database, which includes financial information on over 97,000 private and publicly traded firms in 15 Eastern and Central European countries. The Amadeus database allows the authors the opportunity to provide a new analysis of the general financing patterns of private firms across a large sample of Eastern European countries. The summary statistics show that the size of the SME sector (as measured by the percentage of total employment) in Eastern European countries is smaller than in most developed economies. Although the authors find in almost every country in the sample a large number of SMEs as a percentage of total firms, the SMEs in Eastern Europe are generally small and hire few employees. However, SMEs seem to constitute the most dynamic sector of the Eastern European economies, relative to large firms. In general, the SME sector comprises relatively younger, more highly leveraged, and more profitable and faster growing firms. This suggests that a new type of firm is emerging in transition economies that is more market- and profit-oriented. But at the same time, these firms appear to have financial constraints that impede their access to long-term financing and ability to grow.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2933.

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Date of creation: 31 Dec 2002
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2933

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Related research

Keywords: Microfinance; Small and Medium Size Enterprises; Banks&Banking Reform; Small Scale Enterprise; Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Private Participation in Infrastructure; Small Scale Enterprise; Banks&Banking Reform; Economic Theory&Research; Microfinance;

References

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  1. Köke, Jens & Salem, Tanja, 2000. "Corporate finance and restructuring: evidence from Central and Eastern Europe," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-21, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Gros, Daniel & Suhrcke, Marc, 2000. "Ten years after : what is special about transition countries?," HWWA Discussion Papers 86, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
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  8. Chaves, R.A. & Sanchez, S. & Schor, S. & Tesliuc, E., 2001. "Financial Markets, Credit Constraints, and Investment in Rural Romania," Papers 499, World Bank - Technical Papers.
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  12. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
  13. Jan Svejnar, 2001. "Transition Economies: Performances and Challenges," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 415, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  14. Cressy, Robert & Olofsson, Christer, 1997. " European SME Financing: An Overview," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 87-96, April.
  15. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2002. "Financial and legal constraints to firm growth - Does size matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2784, The World Bank.
  16. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2001. "Firms as financial intermediaries - evidence from trade credit data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2696, The World Bank.
  17. Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2001. "Does foreign bank penetration reduce access to credit in developing countries"evidence from asking borrowers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2716, The World Bank.
  18. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Karin Jõeveer, 2006. "Sources of capital structure : evidence from transition countries," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2006-02, Bank of Estonia, revised 12 Nov 2006.
  2. Eugene Nivorozhkin, 2004. "The Dynamics of Capital Structure in Transition Economies," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 25-45, March.
  3. Hall, Thomas W., 2012. "The collateral channel: Evidence on leverage and asset tangibility," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 570-583.
  4. Love, Inessa & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2005. "Firm financing in India : recent trends and patterns," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3476, The World Bank.
  5. Aidis, Ruta & Estrin, Saul, 2006. "Institutions, Networks and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia: An Exploration," IZA Discussion Papers 2161, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Jõeveer, Karin, 2013. "Firm, country and macroeconomic determinants of capital structure: Evidence from transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 294-308.
  7. Knill, April M., 2008. "Does foreign portfolio investment reach small listed firms ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3796, The World Bank.
  8. Gianni De Nicoló & Sami Geadah & Dmitriy Rozhkov, 2003. "Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries," IMF Working Papers 03/205, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Ralph de Haas & Marga Peeters, 2004. "The Dynamic Adjustment towards Target capital Structures of Firms in," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 123, Netherlands Central Bank.
  10. Tuuli Koivu & Pekka Sutela, 2005. "Financial Systems in Transition: Could Small Actually Be Beautiful?," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 265-283, Spring.
  11. Oluwarotimi Owolabi & Sarmistha Pal, 2009. "The Value of Business Networks; an Analysis of Firm Financing in Transition Economies," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 09-01, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
  12. R.T.A. de Haas & H.M.M. Peeters, 2004. "Firms' dynamic adjustment to target capital structures in transition economies," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 761, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  13. Blandina Oliveira & Adelino Fortunato, 2005. "Firm Growth and Liquidity Constraints: A Dynamic Analysis," GEMF Working Papers 2005-07, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra.
  14. László Szerb & Gábor Rappai & Zsolt Makra & Siri Terjesen, 2007. "Informal Investment in Transition Economies: Individual Characteristics and Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 257-271, March.
  15. John Hutchinson & Ana Xavier, 2006. "Comparing the Impact of Credit Constraints on the Growth of SMEs in a Transition Country with an Established Market Economy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 169-179, October.
  16. Owolabi, Oluwarotimi & Pal, Sarmistha, 2011. "The Value of Business Networks in Emerging Economies: An Analysis of Firms' External Financing Opportunities," IZA Discussion Papers 5738, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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