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Access to capital in rural Thailand : an estimated model of formal versus informal credit

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  • Gine, Xavier

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to understand the mechanism underlying access to credit. The author focuses on two important aspects of rural credit markets in Thailand. First, moneylenders and other informal lenders coexist with formal lending institutions such as government or commercial banks, and more recently, micro-lending institutions. Second, potential borrowers presumably face sizable transaction costs obtaining external credit. The author develops and estimates a model based on limited enforcement and transaction costs that provides a unified view of those facts. The results show that the limited ability of banks to enforce contracts, more than transaction costs, is crucial in understanding the observed diversity of lenders.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3502.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2005
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3502

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Keywords: Payment Systems&Infrastructure; International Terrorism&Counterterrorism; Environmental Economics&Policies; Banks&Banking Reform; Economic Theory&Research; Banks&Banking Reform; Economic Theory&Research; International Terrorism&Counterterrorism; Financial Intermediation; Environmental Economics&Policies;

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  1. Hoff, Karla & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1998. "Moneylenders and bankers: price-increasing subsidies in a monopolistically competitive market," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 485-518, April.
  2. Kochar, Anjini, 1997. "An empirical investigation of rationing constraints in rural credit markets in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 339-371, August.
  3. Gine, Xavier & Townsend, Robert M., 2003. "Evaluation of financial liberalization : a general equilibrium model with constrained occupation choice," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3014, The World Bank.
  4. Pierre-André Chiappori & Bernard Salanié, 2002. "Testing Contract Theory : A Survey of Some Recent Work," Working Papers 2002-11, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  5. Jeremy Greenwood & Boyan Jovanovic, 1989. "Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income," NBER Working Papers 3189, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Gine, Xavier, 2005. "Access to capital in rural Thailand : an estimated model of formal versus informal credit," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3502, The World Bank.
  7. Hoff, Karla & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1990. "Imperfect Information and Rural Credit Markets--Puzzles and Policy Perspectives," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 235-50, September.
  8. Bell, Clive & Srinivasan, T N & Udry, Christopher, 1997. "Rationing, Spillover, and Interlinking in Credit Markets: The Case of Rural Punjab," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 557-85, October.
  9. Parikshit Ghosh & Debraj Ray, 1999. "Information and Enforcement in Informal Credit Markets," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 93, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
  10. Gine, Xavier, 2005. "Cultivate or rent out ? Land security in rural Thailand," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3734, The World Bank.
  11. Bell, Clive, 1990. "Interactions between Institutional and Informal Credit Agencies in Rural India," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(3), pages 297-327, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Gine, Xavier, 2005. "Access to capital in rural Thailand : an estimated model of formal versus informal credit," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3502, The World Bank.
  2. Ute Filipiak, 2013. "Trusting Financial Institutions: Out of Reach, out of Trust?," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp13002, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  3. Mansuri, Ghazala, 2007. "Credit layering in informal financial markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 715-730, November.
  4. Paul Levine & Emanuela Lotti & Nicoletta Batini & Young-Bae Kim, 2010. "Informal Labour and Credit Markets: A Survey," IMF Working Papers 10/42, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Robert M. Townsend & Alexander Karaivanov, 2008. "Enterprise Dynamics and Finance: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Markets Models," 2008 Meeting Papers 846, Society for Economic Dynamics.

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