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Ethnic minority development in Vietnam : a socioeconomic perspective

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Author Info

  • Baulch, Bob
  • Truong Thi Kim Chuyen
  • Haughton, Dominique
  • Haughton, Jonathan

Abstract

The authors examine the latest quantitative evidence on disparities in living standards between and among different ethnic groups in Vietnam. Using data from the 1998 Vietnam Living Standards Survey and 1999 Census, they show that Kinh and Hoa ("majority") households have substantially higher living standards than"minority"households from Vietnam's other 52 ethnic groups. Subdividing the population into five broad categories, the authors find that while the Kinh, Hoa, Khmer, and Northern Highland minorities have benefited from economic growth in the 1990s, the growth of Central Highland minorities has stagnated. Disaggregating further, they find that the same ethnic groups whose living standards have risen fastest are those that have the highest school enrollment rates, are most likely to intermarry with Kinh partners, and are the least likely to practice a religion. The authors then estimate and decompose a set of expenditure regressions which show that even if minority households had the same endowments as Kinh households, this would close no more than a third of the gap in per capita expenditures. While some ethnic minorities seem to be doing well with a strategy of assimilating (both culturally and economically) with the Kinh-Hoa majority, other groups are attempting to integrate economically while retaining distinct cultural identities. A third group comprising the Central Highland minorities, including the Hmong, is largely being left behind by the growth process. Such diversity in the socioeconomic development experiences of the different ethnic minorities indicates the need for similar diversity in the policy interventions that are designed to assist them.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2836.

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Date of creation: 31 May 2002
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2836

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Related research

Keywords: Anthropology; Primary Education; Social Inclusion&Institutions; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Public Health Promotion; Primary Education; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Anthropology; Poverty Assessment; Gender and Education;

References

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  1. Minot, Nicholas & Baulch, Bob, 2002. "The spatial distribution of poverty in Vietnam and the potential for targeting," MTID discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Gunewardena, Dileni & Van de Walle, Dominique, 2000. "Sources of ethnic inequality in Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2297, The World Bank.
  3. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  4. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
  5. Van de Walle, Dominique, 2002. "The static and dynamic incidence of Vietnam's public safety net," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2791, The World Bank.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Giang, Thanh Long & Pfau, Wade Donald, 2008. "Determinants of Elderly Poverty in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 9927, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Giang, Long Thanh & Pfau, Wade Donald, 2009. "A Gender Perspective on Elderly Work in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 24946, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. World Bank, 2009. "Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3093, The World Bank.
  4. Minot, Nicholas & Baulch, Bob, 2002. "The spatial distribution of poverty in Vietnam and the potential for targeting," MSSD discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Green, Maia & Hulme, David, 2005. "From correlates and characteristics to causes: thinking about poverty from a chronic poverty perspective," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 867-879, June.
  6. Swinkels, Rob & Turk, Carrie, 2003. "Strategic planning for poverty reduction in Vietnam : progress and challenges for meeting the localized Millennium Development Goals," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2961, The World Bank.
  7. Vijverberg, WimP. M. & Haughton, Jonathan, 2002. "Household enterprises in Vietnam : survival, growth, and living standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2773, The World Bank.
  8. Patricia Justino & Julie Litchfield, 2003. "Poverty Dynamics in Rural Vietnam: Winners and Losers During Reform," PRUS Working Papers, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex 10, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.

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