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Opportunity cost and prudentiality : an analysis of futures clearinghouse behavior

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Author Info

  • Baer, Herbert L.
  • France, Virginia G.
  • Moser, James T.

Abstract

Margin deposits, which serve as collateral to protect the clearinghouse, are typically the most important tool for risk management. The authors develop a model that explains how creating a futures clearinghouse may allow traders simultaneously to reduce both the risk of default and the total amount of margin that members post. Optimal margin levels are determined by the need to balance the deadweight costs of default against the opportunity cost of holding additional margin. Both costs are a consequence of market participants'imperfect access to capital markets. The simultaneous reduction in default risk and in the opportunity cost of margin deposits is possible because the creation of the clearinghouse facilitates multilateral netting. The authors characterize the conditions under which multilateral netting will dominate bilateral netting. They also show that it is credible for the clearinghouse to expel members who default, further reducing the risk of default. Finally, they show that it may (but need not) be optimal for the clearinghouse to monitor the financial condition of its members. If monitoring occurs, it will reduce the amount of margin required, but need not affect the probability of default. The empirical tests run by the authors indicate that the opportunity cost of margin plays an important role in determining margin. The relationship between volatility and margins indicates that participants face an upward-sloping opportunity cost for margin, which appears to more than offset the effects that monitoring and expulsion would be expected to have on margin setting.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1340.

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Date of creation: 31 Aug 1994
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1340

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Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies; Banks&Banking Reform; International Terrorism&Counterterrorism; Economic Theory&Research; Insurance&Risk Mitigation;

References

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  1. Craine, Roger, 1992. "Are Futures Margins Adequate?," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt30c296g3, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  2. Calomiris, Charles W & Hubbard, R Glenn, 1995. "Internal Finance and Investment: Evidence from the Undistributed Profits Tax of 1936-37," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(4), pages 443-82, October.
  3. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  4. Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Herbert L. Baer & Virginia G. France & James T. Moser, 1993. "Opportunity cost and prudentiality: a representative-agent model of futures clearinghouse behavior," Working Paper Series, Issues in Financial Regulation 93-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  6. Barone-Adesi, Giovanni & Whaley, Robert E, 1987. " Efficient Analytic Approximation of American Option Values," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 301-20, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Moser, James T, 1998. "Contracting Innovations and the Evolution of Exchange Clearinghouses," MPRA Paper 35202, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Kuan, Chung-Ming & Yeh, Jin-Huei & Hsu, Yu-Chin, 2009. "Assessing value at risk with CARE, the Conditional Autoregressive Expectile models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 150(2), pages 261-270, June.
  3. James McAndrews & William Roberds, 1999. "Payment intermediation and the origins of banking," Staff Reports 85, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  4. Broussard, John Paul, 2001. "Extreme-value and margin setting with and without price limits," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 365-385.
  5. James T. Moser, 1998. "Contracting innovations and the evolution of clearing and settlement methods at futures exchanges," Working Paper Series WP-98-26, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  6. Randall Kroszner, 2000. "Lessons from Financial Crises: The Role of Clearinghouses," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 157-171, December.

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