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Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety : A Unified Framework

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  • Fares, M.
  • Rouvière, E.

Abstract

The emergence and the multiplication of safety quality management system within the food supply chain were extensively analyzed in the food safety literature. Some papers deal more specifically with the voluntary implementation by firms of these systems (Segerson, 1999; Venturini, 2003; Noelke & Caswell, 2000). Our paper develops a unified analytical framework of this burgeoning literature. We show three original results: (i) when the mandatory threat is strong, the voluntary adoption of safety measures can be implemented without the need of a cost differential assumption (Segerson, 1999), or a reputation effect (Venturini, 2003); (ii) when the mandatory threat is weak, the reputation effect and the liability rule may induce the voluntary adoption only when there is a "hard" response from the consumers; (iii) when the response from consumers is "soft", a well designed contract offered by the retailer in the supply chain can induce the firm to implement voluntary safety measures. ...French Abstract : Ces dernières années en économie agro-alimentaire, la multiplication et le développement de systèmes de management de la qualité (SMQ) au sein de l'offre alimentaire ont fait l'objet un intérêt particulier. Cependant, seules quelques recherches traitent formellement de l'adoption volontaire de tels systèmes par les entreprises (Segerson, 1999; Venturini, 2003; Noelke & Caswell, 2000). Dans cet article, nous proposons un cadre analytique unifié de cette littérature émergente. Premièrement, nous relâchons les hypothèses d'existence d'un différentiel de coût entre des SMQ volontaire et réglementaire (Sergerson, 1999) ou d'un stock de réputation (Venturini, 2003). Nous montrons ainsi qu'une menace réglementaire forte est une condition nécessaire et suffisante à l'adoption volontaire par les entreprises d'un SMQ. Deuxièmement, nous distinguons deux situations lorsque la menace réglementaire est faible. D'une part, suite à une contamination sanitaire quand la réponse des consommateurs ou du marché est " forte ", les effets de réputation et le " design " de la règle de responsabilité jouent comme des incitations à l'adoption volontaire. D'autre part, quand la réponse des consommateurs (du marché) est " molle ", seul le contrat qu'offre le distributeur à l'entreprise peut induire une adoption volontaire.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 200615.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:200615

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Keywords: VOLUNTARY APPROACHES; FOOD SAFETY; SUPPLY CHAIN;

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  1. Loader, Rupert & Hobbs, Jill E., 1999. "Strategic responses to food safety legislation," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 685-706, December.
  2. Unnevehr, Laurian J. & Jensen, Helen H., 1999. "The economic implications of using HACCP as a food safety regulatory standard," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 625-635, December.
  3. Holleran, Erin & Bredahl, Maury E. & Zaibet, Lokman, 1999. "Private incentives for adopting food safety and quality assurance," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 669-683, December.
  4. Henson, Spencer J. & Hooker, Neal H., 2001. "Private Sector Management Of Food Safety: Public Regulation And The Role Of Private Controls," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA), vol. 4(01).
  5. Kathleen Segerson, 1999. "Mandatory versus voluntary approaches to food safety," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(1), pages 53-70.
  6. Khanna, Madhu, 2001. " Non-mandatory Approaches to Environmental Protection," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 291-324, July.
  7. Laurian J. Unnevehr & Helen H. Jensen, 1996. "HACCP as a Regulatory Innovation to Improve Food Safety in the Meat Industry," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 96-wp152, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  8. Henson, Spencer & Heasman, Michael, 1998. "Food safety regulation and the firm: understanding the compliance process1," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 9-23, February.
  9. Noelke, Corinna M. & Caswell, Julie A., 2000. "A Model Of The Implementation Of Quality Management Systems For Credence Attributes," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21874, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  10. Segerson, Kathleen, 1998. "Mandatory vs. Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety," Research Reports 25188, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  11. Laurian J. Unnevehr & Helen H. Jensen, 1999. "Economic Implications of Using HACCP as a Food Safety Regulatory Standard, The," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 99-wp228, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  12. Julie A. Caswell & Neal H. Hooker, 1996. "HACCP as an International Trade Standard," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 775-779.
  13. Buzby, Jean C. & Frenzen, Paul D., 1999. "Food safety and product liability," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 637-651, December.
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