Increasing Outer Risk
AbstractRecent empirical research has established that the distributions of a wide range of economic variables are kurtotic in that they have higher peak(s) in the neighborhood of the mean and greater elongation in the tails than the normal distribution. This paper provides a formal characterization of the empirically significant notions of kurtotic distributions by formulating the concept of outer risk. An increase in outer risk corresponds to a dispersion transfer from the center of a distribution to its tails. In terms of the relocation of probability mass, such a dispersion transfer accentuates the peak(s) of the distribution and elongates its tails. It is shown that ordering distributions by outer risk is equivalent to the ordering of distributions resulting from unanimous choice by all individuals whose utility function has a negative fourth derivative.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, University of Missouri in its series Working Papers with number 0413.
Length: 19 pgs.
Date of creation: 23 Dec 2004
Date of revision: 23 Dec 2004
Outer risk; outer risk aversion;
Other versions of this item:
- D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2005-01-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-MIC-2005-01-02 (Microeconomics)
- NEP-RMG-2005-01-02 (Risk Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eeckhoudt, Louis & Gollier, Christian & Schneider, Thierry, 1995.
"Risk-aversion, prudence and temperance: A unified approach,"
Elsevier, vol. 48(3-4), pages 331-336, June.
- EECKHOUDT, Louis & Christian GOLLIER & Thierry SCHNEIDER, 1994. "Risk Aversion, Prudence and Temperance : A Unified Approach," Working Papers 006, Risk and Insurance Archive.
- DEBREU, Gérard, .
"Economies with a finite set of equilibria,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
-67, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Caballero, R.J., 1994.
"Explaining Investment Dynamics in U.S. Manufacturing: Generalized (S,s) Approach,"
94-32, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M. R. A. Engel, 1999. "Explaining Investment Dynamics in U.S. Manufacturing: A Generalized (S,s) Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(4), pages 783-826, July.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M.R.A. Engel, 1996. "Explaining Investment Dynamics in U.S. Manufacturing: A Generalized (S,s) Approach," Documentos de Trabajo 12, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M.R.A. Engel, 1994. "Explaining Investment Dynamics in U.S. Manufacturing: A Generalized (S,s) Approach," NBER Working Papers 4887, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hwang, S. & Satchell, S. E., 1998.
"Modelling Emerging Market Risk Premia using Higher Moments,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9806, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Hwang, Soosung & Satchell, Stephen E, 1999. "Modelling Emerging Market Risk Premia Using Higher Moments," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(4), pages 271-96, October.
- Stephen Satchell & Soosung Hwang, 1999. "Modelling Emerging Market Risk Premia Using Higher Moments," Working Papers wp99-17, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
- Michael F. Bryan & Stephen G. Cecchetti & Rodney L. Wiggins II, 1997.
"Efficient Inflation Estimation,"
NBER Working Papers
6183, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- L. Wade, 1988. "Review," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 99-100, July.
- Pratt, John W & Zeckhauser, Richard J, 1987. "Proper Risk Aversion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(1), pages 143-54, January.
- Corrado, Charles J & Su, Tie, 1996. "Skewness and Kurtosis in S&P 500 Index Returns Implied by Option Prices," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 175-92, Summer.
- Hentschel, Ludger & Campbell, John, 1992.
"No News is Good News: An Asymmetric Model of Changing Volatility in Stock Returns,"
3220232, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Campbell, John Y. & Hentschel, Ludger, 1992. "No news is good news *1: An asymmetric model of changing volatility in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 281-318, June.
- John Y. Campbell & Ludger Hentschel, 1991. "No News is Good News: An Asymmetric Model of Changing Volatility in Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 3742, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ekern, Steinar, 1980. "Increasing Nth degree risk," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 329-333.
- Kimball, Miles S, 1993.
"Standard Risk Aversion,"
Econometric Society, vol. 61(3), pages 589-611, May.
- Menezes, C & Geiss, C & Tressler, J, 1980. "Increasing Downside Risk," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 921-32, December.
- Badrinath, S G & Chatterjee, Sangit, 1988. "On Measuring Skewness and Elongation in Common Stock Return Distributions: The Case of the Market Index," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(4), pages 451-72, October.
- Aggarwal, Raj & Rao, Ramesh P & Hiraki, Takato, 1989. "Skewness and Kurtosis in Japanese Equity Returns: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 12(3), pages 253-60, Fall.
- Gollier, Christian & Pratt, John W, 1996. "Risk Vulnerability and the Tempering Effect of Background Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1109-23, September.
- Richard Harris & C. Coskun Kucukozmen, 2001. "The empirical distribution of stock returns: evidence from an emerging European market," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(6), pages 367-371.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Stratton).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.