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Start-up entry strategies: Employer vs. Nonemployer firms

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  • Michele Moretto
  • Gianpaolo Rossini

Abstract

From 1997 to 2001 we observe in the Usa a faster growth in the number of Nonemploye firms (NF) vis à vis Employer firms (EF). The diverse speed of net entry may be due to particular internal organisation of the two types of firms and the effect that this has on the reactions to market uncertainty. However, the set of internal organizations of firms is larger than that made up simply by EFs and NFs, in particular among newborn firms, since we observe corporate start-ups with employees, firms owned and managed by their founders who are simultaneously the employees and, finally, non corporate enterprises. The second class of firms mostly belongs to the category of NFs, according to US nomenclature, while non corporate firms may belong to either category. Our curiosity is attracted by different entry patterns of NFs and EFs and our aim is to interpret them. According to recent literature, firms carry out an irreversible investment, such as entry, only if market prices are strictly larger than average total costs (Marshallian point). However, the trigger price that makes firms become active is affected by institutional rules, the existence of profit sharing, efficiency wages, exit options - i.e. partial reversibility - financial constraints. Then, the internal organization of a newborn firm may make the difference. In a continuous time stochastic environment, where firms bear a sunk cost, we model entry as a growth option. On the trace of distinct objective functions we show that NFs and EFs have specific entry patterns in terms of output price and/or size. Why? Simply because they react in diverse fashions to market price volatility. In this sense we are able to show that, in most cases, the NF is locally less risky. This makes the NF better suited to enter under conditions of higher volatility. This exactly corresponds to what happened during the years between 1997-2001.

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Paper provided by University of Brescia, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number ubs0409.

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Handle: RePEc:ubs:wpaper:ubs0409

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  1. Pestieau, P. & Thisse, J. -F., 1979. "On market imperfections and labor management," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 353-356.
  2. Taylor, Mark P, 1999. "Survival of the Fittest? An Analysis of Self-Employment Duration in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(454), pages C140-55, March.
  3. Harrison, J. Michael & Kreps, David M., 1979. "Martingales and arbitrage in multiperiod securities markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 381-408, June.
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  5. Ben S. Bernanke, 1980. "Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Cyclical Investment," NBER Working Papers 0502, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Simon Parker & Tim Barmby & Yacine Belghitar, 2004. "Wage Uncertainty And The Labour Supply Of Self-Employed Workers," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2004 67, Royal Economic Society.
  7. Leahy, J.V., 1991. "The Optimality of Myopic Behaviour in a Competitive Model of Entry and Exit," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1566, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  8. Pencavel, John & Craig, Ben, 1994. "The Empirical Performance of Orthodox Models of the Firm: Conventional Firms and Worker Cooperatives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(4), pages 718-44, August.
  9. Delbono, Flavio & Rossini, Gianpaolo, 1992. "Competition policy vs horizontal merger with public, entrepreneurial, and labor-managed firms," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 226-240, June.
  10. McDonald, Robert & Siegel, Daniel, 1986. "The Value of Waiting to Invest," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(4), pages 707-27, November.
  11. Michele Moretto, 1999. "Optimal Capacity Adjustment by a Multiplant Firm," Working Papers 1999.28, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
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Cited by:
  1. Michele Moretto & Gianpaolo Rossini, 2008. "Are Workers Enterprises Entry Policies Conventional?," "Marco Fanno" Working Papers 0066, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche "Marco Fanno".

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