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Effectiveness of bailouts in the EU

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  • Glowicka, Ela

Abstract

Governments in the EU frequently bail out firms in distress by granting state aid. I use data from 86 cases during the years 1995-2003 to examine two issues: the effectiveness of bailouts in preventing bankruptcy and the determinants of bailout policy. The results are threefold. First, the estimated discrete-time hazard rate increases during the first four years after the subsidy and drops after that, suggesting that some bailouts only delayed exit instead of preventing it. The number of failing bailouts could be reduced if European control was tougher. Second, governments’ bailout decisions favored state-owned firms, even though state-owned firms did not outperform private ones in the survival chances. Third, subsidy choice is an endogenous variable in the analysis of the hazard rate. Treating it as exogenous underestimates its impact on the bankruptcy probability. Several policy implications of the results are discussed in the paper.

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Paper provided by Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich in its series Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems with number 176.

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Date of creation: Oct 2006
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Handle: RePEc:trf:wpaper:176

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Keywords: State aid; European Union; Discrete-time hazard; Bivariate probit;

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  1. Ela Glowicka, 2005. "Bailouts in a Common Market: A Strategic Approach," CIG Working Papers SP II 2005-20, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  2. Maskin, Eric & Xu, Cheng-Gang, 2001. "Soft Budget Constraint Theories: From Centralization to the Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 2715, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  4. Boadway, R. & Marceau, N. & Marchand, M., . "Time-consistent subsidies to unlucky firms," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1220, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
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  9. Chiara Monfardini & Rosalba Radice, 2008. "Testing Exogeneity in the Bivariate Probit Model: A Monte Carlo Study," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(2), pages 271-282, 04.
  10. Li, Kai, 1999. "Bayesian analysis of duration models: an application to Chapter 11 bankruptcy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 305-312, June.
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  12. Ilya R. Segal, 1998. "Monopoly and Soft Budget Constraint," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(3), pages 596-609, Autumn.
  13. Bandopadhyaya, Arindam, 1994. "An Estimation of the Hazard Rate of Firms under Chapter 11 Protection," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 346-50, May.
  14. Rainer Nitsche & Paul Heidhues, 2006. "Study on methods to analyse the impact of state aid on competition," European Economy - Economic Papers 244, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  15. Oscar Couwenberg, 2001. "Survival Rates in Bankruptcy Systems: Overlooking the Evidence," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 253-273, November.
  16. Couwenberg, Oscar, 2001. "Survival rates in bankruptcy systems : overlooking the evidence," Research Report 01E15, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
  17. Jonathan Beck, 2004. "Fixed, Focal, Fair? Book Prices Under Optional Resale Price Maintenance," CIG Working Papers SP II 2004-15, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
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Cited by:
  1. Bortolotti, Bernardo & Cambini, Carlo & Rondi, Laura, 2012. "Reluctant Regulation," MPRA Paper 48073, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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