Trade Credit, Bank Loans, and Monitoring: Evidence from Japan
AbstractFirms in modern developed economies can choose to borrow from banks or from trade partners. Using first-difference and difference-in-differences regressions on Japanese manufacturing data, we explore the way they make that choice. Whether small or large, they do borrow from their trade partners heavily, and apparently at implicit rates that track the explicit rates banks would charge them. Nonetheless, they do not treat bank loans and trade credit interchangeably. Disproportionately, they borrow from banks when they anticipate needing money for relatively long periods, and turn to trade partners when they face short-term exigencies they did not expect. This contrast in the term structures of bank loans and trade credit follows from the fundamentally different way bankers and trade partners reduce the default risks they face. Because bankers seldom know their borrowers' industries first-hand, they rely on guarantees and security interests. Because trade partners know those industries well, they instead monitor their borrowers closely. Because the costs to creating security interests are heavily front-loaded, bankers focus on long-term debt. Because the costs of monitoring debtors are on-going, trade creditors do not. Despite the enormous theoretical literature on bank monitoring, banks apparently monitor very little.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo in its series CIRJE F-Series with number CIRJE-F-381.
Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2005
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033
Web page: http://www.cirje.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Yoshiro Miwa & J. Mark Ramseyer, 2005. "Trade Credit, Bank Loans, and Monitoring: Evidence from Japan," CARF F-Series CARF-F-054, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
- NEP-ALL-2005-10-15 (All new papers)
- NEP-CFN-2005-10-15 (Corporate Finance)
- NEP-FMK-2005-10-15 (Financial Markets)
- NEP-INT-2005-10-15 (International Trade)
- NEP-SEA-2005-10-15 (South East Asia)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 1998.
"Interfirm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam,"
William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series
132, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 1999. "Interfirm Relationships And Informal Credit In Vietnam," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1285-1320, November.
- McMillan, John & Woodruff, Christopher, 1998. "Inter-Firm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam," CEPR Discussion Papers 2036, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1996.
"Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence,"
NBER Working Papers
5602, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Yoshiro Miwa & J. Mark Ramseyer, 2004. "Directed Credit? The Loan Market in High-Growth Japan," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 171-205, 03.
- Ramseyer, J Mark, 1991. "Legal Rules in Repeated Deals: Banking in the Shadow of Defection in Japan," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 91-117, January.
- Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1995.
"The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-43, May.
- Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1994. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," NBER Working Papers 4921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Raymond Fisman & Inessa Love, 2002.
"Trade Credit, Financial Intermediary Development and Industry Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
8960, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Raymond Fisman & Inessa Love, 2003. "Trade Credit, Financial Intermediary Development, and Industry Growth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 353-374, 02.
- Fisman, Raymond & Love, Inessa, 2001. "Trade credit, financial intermediary development, and industry growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2695, The World Bank.
- Chee K. Ng & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 1999. "Evidence on the Determinants of Credit Terms Used in Interfirm Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1109-1129, 06.
- Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
- Emery, Gary W., 1987. "An Optimal Financial Response to Variable Demand," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(02), pages 209-225, June.
- Matsumura, Toshihiro & Ryser, Marc, 1995. "Revelation of Private Information about Unpaid Notes in the Trade Credit Bill System in Japan," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(1), pages 165-87, January.
- Mian, Shehzad L & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1992. " Accounts Receivable Management Policy: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 169-200, March.
- Ross Levine, 2004.
"Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence,"
NBER Working Papers
10766, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1987. " Trade Credit and Informational Asymmetry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 863-72, September.
- Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
- Ferris, J Stephen, 1981. "A Transactions Theory of Trade Credit Use," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 96(2), pages 243-70, May.
- Biais, Bruno & Gollier, Christian, 1997. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 903-37.
- Brennan, Michael J & Maksimovic, Vojislav & Zechner, Josef, 1988. " Vendor Financing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1127-41, December.
- Schwartz, Robert A., 1974. "An Economic Model of Trade Credit," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(04), pages 643-657, September.
- Lee, Yul W. & Stowe, John D., 1993. "Product Risk, Asymmetric Information, and Trade Credit," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(02), pages 285-300, June.
- Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory F. & Watanabe, Wako, 2013.
"Are trade creditors relationship lenders?,"
Japan and the World Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 24-38.
- TSURUTA Daisuke, 2007. "Credit Contagion and Trade Credit Supply: Evidence from Small Business Data in Japan," Discussion papers 07043, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Kenshi Taketa & Gregory F. Udell, 2007. "Lending Channels and Financial Shocks: The Case of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Trade Credit and the Japanese Banking Crisis," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 25(2), pages 1-44, November.
- Rajendra R. Vaidya, 2011. "The Determinants of trade credit: Evidence from Indian manufacturing firms," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-012, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CIRJE administrative office).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.