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Bank Lending and Monetary Shocks: an Empirical Investigation

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  • Amjad Ali

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • M. Ali Choudhary

    (State Bank of Pakistan and University of Surrey)

  • Shah Hussain

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Vasco J. Gabriel

    (University of Surrey)

Abstract

This paper provides a systematic empirical study of the role of credit market frictions in the transmission of monetary shocks. First, using macro data for a developing economy (Pakistan), we show that banking spreads are countercyclical, even when we control for credit risk, monetary policy and potential maturity mismatches. Moreover, we find that this anticyclical nature is accentuated in the presence of government as an active participant in the private credit market. Then, using a unique dataset on corporate loan agreements for the period 2006-2011, we find evidence that, in times of tight monetary conditions, there is an overall increase in the pass-through of policy impulses to individual loans rates. Furthermore, our evidence suggest that the impact of these shocks is disproportionately felt by borrowers and is especially biased towards less established firms. Moreover, small (weak) banks change their loan conditions the most in tight conditions. Thus, our findings support the view that the existence of a credit channel is particularly relevant for emerging economies, hence emphasizing the need for appropriate stabilization policies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by School of Economics, University of Surrey in its series School of Economics Discussion Papers with number 0212.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:sur:surrec:0212

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Keywords: Bank Margins; Credit Channel; Monetary Policy;

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References

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  1. Ben S. Bernanke & Alan S. Blinder, 1989. "The federal funds rate and the channels of monetary transmission," Working Papers 89-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  2. Qayyum, Abdul & Khan, Sajawal & Khawaja, Idrees, 2005. "Interest Rate Pass-through in Pakistan: Evidence from Transfer Function Approach," MPRA Paper 2056, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2005.
  3. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
  4. den Haan, Wouter J., 2000. "The comovement between output and prices," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 3-30, August.
  5. Atif Mian & Asim Ijaz Khwaja, 2006. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," NBER Working Papers 12612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  8. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-41, February.
  9. Gali, J., 1991. "Monopolistic Competition, Business Cycles and the Composition of Aggregate Demand," Papers 92-03, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
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  12. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995. "Symposium on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 3-10, Fall.
  13. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1993. "Monetary policy, business cycles and the behavior of small manufacturing firms," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-4, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Adam B. Ashcraft, 2001. "New evidence on the lending channel," Staff Reports 136, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  15. Ben Bernanke & Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1994. "The Financial Accelerator and the Flight to Quality," NBER Working Papers 4789, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
  17. Allan H. Meltzer, 1995. "Monetary, Credit and (Other) Transmission Processes: A Monetarist Perspective," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 49-72, Fall.
  18. Aliaga-Díaz, Roger & Olivero, María Pía, 2010. "Is there a financial accelerator in US banking?: Evidence from the cyclicality of banks' price-cost margins," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 167-171, August.
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