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La compétitivité de l'industrie d'habillement tunisienne. Atouts et limites (The tunisian clothing industry competitiveness : assets and limits)

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  • Iheb FRIJA

    ()
    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    Récemment, Eli Heckscher et Bertil Ohlin ont fait la révolution du commerce international en introduisant la différence internationale de dotations en facteurs de productions ; " Factor abundance theory ". Cette dotation étant en ellemême un déterminant de la compétitivité d'une nation. Dans ce travail, en se basant sur les dotations factorielles, nous analysons la spécialisation internationale de la Tunisie et de ses principaux concurrents sur le marché mondial d'habillement. L'avantage comparatif révélé en plus de la matrice de compétitivité qualité seront mis en œuvre dans cette étude en vue d'évaluer l'importance de la rivalité dans le commerce international des produits de l'habillement tunisiens. Afin d'appréhender l'effet de la libéralisation sur le développement futur des productions habillements, notre analyse porte aussi une attention particulière à l'évolution des exportations tunisiennes des principales catégories de produits de l'habillement. Les résultats ont montré que la Tunisie détient un avantage comparatif très élevé par rapport à ses concurrents. Cet avantage est détenu dans la majorité des produits habillement exportés. Nos analyses nous ont aussi révélé une situation paradoxale à la théorie d'Heckscher et Ohlin. En effet, la Tunisie étant un pays riche en main d'œuvre utilisée en abondance dans la fabrication des produits de l'habillement, pour lesquels elle détient un avantage comparatif, assiste à une baisse de ses exportations suite à l'ouverture au libre échange. Recently, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin introduced the "international trade revolution" related to their "Factor Abundance Theory". According to this theory, the "Factor Endowment" is an important element of nations' competitiveness. In the current study, we analyze the international competitiveness of the Tunisian textile sector based on the factor endowment concept. The Comparative Advantage in addition to the "Matrix of Quality" of the Tunisian textile and clothing sector will be calculated and compared with other competitor countries. In the aim of understanding the trade liberalization' effect on the development of the textiles and clothing productions, our analysis will also focus on the evolution of the Tunisian main exported categories of these wearing productions. Our results show that Tunisia has a high comparative advantage compared with its competitors. We notice also that Tunisia holds this competitive advantage over most of the exported wearing products. However, this analysis reveals a paradox situation to the Heckscher and Ohlin's theory. In fact, although Tunisia has an abundant labor factor which is widely used in the clothing production and helps the country to benefit from its comparative advantage in this sector, the trade liberalization has been associated to a continuous decrease of the Tunisian clothing exports as well in value as in volume.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 200.

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    Length: 16 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2008
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, November 2008
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:200

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    Keywords: clothing industry; Tunisian; Revealed comparative; advantage; quality; trade liberalization;

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    1. Balassa, Bela, 1979. "The Changing Pattern of Comparative Advantage in Manufactured Goods," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 61(2), pages 259-66, May.
    2. BAUWENS, Luc & ROMBOUTS, Jeroen V.K., . "Econometrics," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1713, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
      • Rombouts, Jeroen V. K. & Bauwens, Luc, 2004. "Econometrics," Papers 2004,33, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Center for Applied Statistics and Economics (CASE).
    3. Hallak, Juan Carlos, 2006. "Product quality and the direction of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 238-265, January.
    4. Bahri Yilmaz, 2003. "Turkey's competitiveness in the European Union: A comparison with five candidate countries - Bulgaria, The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania - and the EU15," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp12, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 Feb 2003.
    5. Lyford, Conrad P. & Welch, J. Mark, 2004. "Measuring Competition For Textiles: Does The U.S. Make The Grade?," 2004 Annual Meeting, February 14-18, 2004, Tulsa, Oklahoma 34616, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    6. Juan Carlos Hallak & Peter K. Schott, 2008. "Estimating Cross-Country Differences in Product Quality," NBER Working Papers 13807, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Sayan Serdar, 2003. "H-O for H2O: Can the Heckscher-Ohlin Framework Explain the Role of Free Trade in Distributing Scarce Water Resources Around the Middle East?," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 1(3), pages 21-36, December.
    8. Aiginger, Karl, 1997. "The Use of Unit Values to Discriminate between Price and Quality Competition," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(5), pages 571-92, September.
    9. Juan Carlos Hallak, 2003. "The Effect of Cross-Country Differences in Product Quality on the Direction of International Trade 2002," Working Papers 493, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    10. Finger, J M & Kreinin, M E, 1979. "A Measure of 'Export Similarity' and Its Possible Uses," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 89(356), pages 905-12, December.
    11. Crozet, M. & Erkel-Rousse, H., 2000. "Trade Performances and the Estimation of Price-Elasticities : Quality Matters," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.61, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
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