The Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index
AbstractThe Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) is a new survey-based index designed to measure the empowerment, agency, and inclusion of women in the agricultural sector. The WEAI was initially developed as a tool to reflect women's empowerment that may result from the United States government's Feed the Future Initiative, which commissioned the development of the WEAI. The WEAI can also be used more generally to assess the state of empowerment and gender parity in agriculture, to identify key areas in which empowerment needs to be strengthened, and to track progress over time. The WEAI is an aggregate index, reported at the country or regional level, based on individual-level data collected by interviewing men and women within the same households. The WEAI comprises two subindexes. The first assesses the degree to which women are empowered in five domains of empowerment (5DE) in agriculture. It reflects the percentage of women who are empowered and, among those who are not, the percentage of domains in which women enjoy adequate achievements. These domains are (1) decisions about agricultural production, (2) access to and decision-making power about productive resources, (3) control of use of income, (4) leadership in the community, and (5) time allocation. The second subindex (the Gender Parity Index [GPI]) measures gender parity. The GPI reflects the percentage of women who are empowered or whose achievements are at least as high as the men in their households. For those households that have not achieved gender parity, the GPI shows the empowerment gap that needs to be closed for women to reach the same level of empowerment as men. This technical paper documents the development of the WEAI and presents pilot data from Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda, so that researchers and practitioners seeking to use the index in their own work would understand how the survey questionnaires were developed and piloted, how the qualitative case studies were undertaken, how the index was constructed, how various indicators were validated, and how it can be used in other settings.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford in its series OPHI Working Papers with number ophiwp058.
Date of creation: Feb 2013
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Queen Elizabeth House 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB United Kingdom
Phone: +44 (1865) 281800
Fax: +44 (1865) 281801
Web page: http://ophi.qeh.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- NEP-AGR-2013-07-20 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2013-07-20 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2013-07-20 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-HME-2013-07-20 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Deepa Narayan, 2005. "Measuring Empowerment : Cross Disciplinary Perspectives," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7441, March.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2001.
"Control and ownership of assets within rural Ethiopian households,"
120, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- M. Fafchamps & A. R. Quisumbing, 2002. "Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 47-82.
- Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes Quisumbing, 2000. "Control and ownership of assets within rural Ethiopian households," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-27, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R Quisumbing, 2000. "Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-27, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2001. "Control and ownership of assets within rural Ethiopian households," FCND discussion papers 120, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Sabina Alkire and Maria Emma Santos, 2010.
"Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries,"
OPHI Working Papers
ophiwp038, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Alkire, Sabina & Santos, María Emma, 2011. "Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 3, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Sabina Alkire & Maria Emma Santos, 2010. "Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2010-11, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Agarwal, Bina, 2001. "Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry, and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1623-1648, October.
- Agnes Quisumbing & Neha Kumar, 2011. "Does social capital build women's assets? The long-term impacts of group-based and individual dissemination of agricultural technology in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 220-242.
- Beaman, Lori & Dillon, Andrew, 2012. "Do household definitions matter in survey design? Results from a randomized survey experiment in Mali," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 124-135.
- Ruth Alsop & Mette Bertelsen & Jeremy Holland, 2006. "Empowerment in Practice : From Analysis to Implementation," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6980, March.
- Carmen Diana Deere & Gina E. Alvarado & Jennifer Twyman, 2012. "Gender Inequality in Asset Ownership in Latin America: Female Owners vs Household Heads," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 43(2), pages 505-530, 03.
- Smith, Lisa C. & Ramakrishnan, Usha & Ndiaye, Aida & Haddad, Lawrence James & Martorell, Reynaldo, 2003. "The importance of women's status for child nutrition in developing countries:," Research reports 131, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- David Lawson, 2007. "A Gendered Analysis of `Time Poverty` - The Importance of Infrastructure," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-078, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011.
"Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 476-487.
- Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
- Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
- Djemai, Elodie & Arestoff, Florence, 2013. "Women's empowerment across the life cycle and generations: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/12351, Paris Dauphine University.
- Malapit, Hazel Jean L. & Kadiyala, Suneetha & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Cunningham, Kenda & Tyagi, Parul, 2013. "Womenâ€™s empowerment in agriculture, production diversity, and nutrition: Evidence from Nepal:," IFPRI discussion papers 1313, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Sraboni, Esha & Malapit, Hazel J. & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Ahmed, Akhter U., 2013. "Womenâ€™s empowerment in agriculture: What role for food security in Bangladesh?:," IFPRI discussion papers 1297, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Agbodji, Akoete Ega & Batana, Yele Maweki & Ouedraogo, Denis, 2013. "Gender inequality in multidimensional welfare deprivation in west Africa : the case of Burkina Faso and Togo," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6522, The World Bank.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rachel Crawford).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.