Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index

Contents:

Author Info

  • Sabina Alkire, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Amber Peterman, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Greg Seymour and Ana Vaz

Abstract

The Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) is a new survey-based index designed to measure the empowerment, agency, and inclusion of women in the agricultural sector. The WEAI was initially developed as a tool to reflect women's empowerment that may result from the United States government's Feed the Future Initiative, which commissioned the development of the WEAI. The WEAI can also be used more generally to assess the state of empowerment and gender parity in agriculture, to identify key areas in which empowerment needs to be strengthened, and to track progress over time. The WEAI is an aggregate index, reported at the country or regional level, based on individual-level data collected by interviewing men and women within the same households. The WEAI comprises two subindexes. The first assesses the degree to which women are empowered in five domains of empowerment (5DE) in agriculture. It reflects the percentage of women who are empowered and, among those who are not, the percentage of domains in which women enjoy adequate achievements. These domains are (1) decisions about agricultural production, (2) access to and decision-making power about productive resources, (3) control of use of income, (4) leadership in the community, and (5) time allocation. The second subindex (the Gender Parity Index [GPI]) measures gender parity. The GPI reflects the percentage of women who are empowered or whose achievements are at least as high as the men in their households. For those households that have not achieved gender parity, the GPI shows the empowerment gap that needs to be closed for women to reach the same level of empowerment as men. This technical paper documents the development of the WEAI and presents pilot data from Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda, so that researchers and practitioners seeking to use the index in their own work would understand how the survey questionnaires were developed and piloted, how the qualitative case studies were undertaken, how the index was constructed, how various indicators were validated, and how it can be used in other settings.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www3.qeh.ox.ac.uk/pdf/ophiwp/OPHIWP058.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford in its series OPHI Working Papers with number ophiwp058.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Feb 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:qeh:ophiwp:ophiwp058

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Queen Elizabeth House 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB United Kingdom
Phone: +44 (1865) 281800
Fax: +44 (1865) 281801
Email:
Web page: http://ophi.qeh.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Deepa Narayan & Lant Pritchett & Soumya Kapoor, 2009. "Moving Out of Poverty : Volume 2. Success from the Bottom Up," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11838, August.
  2. Sabina Alkire & Maria Emma Santos, 2010. "Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present), Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) HDRP-2010-11, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  3. Deepa Narayan, 2002. "Empowerment and Poverty Reduction : A Sourcebook," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15239, August.
  4. Agnes Quisumbing & Neha Kumar, 2011. "Does social capital build women's assets? The long-term impacts of group-based and individual dissemination of agricultural technology in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 220-242.
  5. Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011. "Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 476-487.
  6. M. Fafchamps & A. R. Quisumbing, 2002. "Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 47-82.
  7. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
  8. Ruth Alsop & Mette Bertelsen & Jeremy Holland, 2006. "Empowerment in Practice : From Analysis to Implementation," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6980, August.
  9. Beaman, Lori & Dillon, Andrew, 2012. "Do household definitions matter in survey design? Results from a randomized survey experiment in Mali," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 124-135.
  10. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:10:y:2006:i:12:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Sabina Alkire & James Foster & Maria Santos, 2011. "Where did identification go?," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 501-505, September.
  12. Solava Ibrahim & Sabina Alkire, 2007. "Agency and Empowerment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 379-403.
  13. Sabina Alkire & James Foster, 2011. "Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 289-314, June.
  14. Sabina Alkire, 2005. "Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency," Social Indicators Research, Springer, Springer, vol. 74(1), pages 217-260, October.
  15. Smith, Lisa C. & Ramakrishnan, Usha & Ndiaye, Aida & Haddad, Lawrence James & Martorell, Reynaldo, 2003. "The importance of women's status for child nutrition in developing countries:," Research reports, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 131, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  16. Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
  17. David Lawson, 2007. "A Gendered Analysis of `Time Poverty` - The Importance of Infrastructure," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics GPRG-WPS-078, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  18. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  19. Quentin Wodon & Elena Bardasi, 2006. "Measuring Time Poverty and Analyzing its Determinants: Concepts and Application to Guinea," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 10(12), pages 1-7.
  20. Carmen Diana Deere & Gina E. Alvarado & Jennifer Twyman, 2012. "Gender Inequality in Asset Ownership in Latin America: Female Owners vs Household Heads," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 43(2), pages 505-530, 03.
  21. Agarwal, Bina, 2001. "Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry, and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1623-1648, October.
  22. Buvinic, Mayra & Gupta, Geeta Rao, 1997. "Female-Headed Households and Female-Maintained Families: Are They Worth Targeting to Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 259-80, January.
  23. Sabina Alkire, 2008. "Concepts and Measures of Agency," OPHI Working Papers, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford ophiwp010, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  24. Deepa Narayan, 2005. "Measuring Empowerment : Cross Disciplinary Perspectives," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7441, August.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Doss, Cheryl & Kim, Sung Mi & Njuki, Jemimah & Hillenbrand, Emily & Miruka, Maureen, 2014. "Women’s individual and joint property ownership: Effects on household decisionmaking:," IFPRI discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 1347, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Djemaï, Elodie & Arestoff, Florence, 2013. "Women's empowerment across the life cycle and generations: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University 123456789/12351, Paris Dauphine University.
  3. Malapit, Hazel Jean L. & Kadiyala, Suneetha & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Cunningham, Kenda & Tyagi, Parul, 2013. "Women’s empowerment in agriculture, production diversity, and nutrition: Evidence from Nepal:," IFPRI discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 1313, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Agbodji, Akoete Ega & Batana, Yele Maweki & Ouedraogo, Denis, 2013. "Gender inequality in multidimensional welfare deprivation in west Africa : the case of Burkina Faso and Togo," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 6522, The World Bank.
  5. Sraboni, Esha & Malapit, Hazel J. & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Ahmed, Akhter U., 2013. "Women’s empowerment in agriculture: What role for food security in Bangladesh?:," IFPRI discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 1297, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:qeh:ophiwp:ophiwp058. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rachel Crawford).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.