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Extension in India by Public Sector Institutions: An Overview


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  • Singh, K.M.
  • Meena, M.S.
  • Swanson, B.E.


Presently, Indian agricultural extension has wide mandates and despite the pluralistic extension approaches, its coverage and use of services is limited; particularly in rain-fed regions that are represented by marginal and smallholder farmers’. Hence, there is need to develop “need-based” capacity building of small-scale men and women farmers, as well as gaining access to reliable information in increasing their productivity and profitability for livelihoods improvements. There are five major agricultural public sector extension systems devoted to extension work in India: (i) the Ministry of Agriculture at central level, including the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and the Directorate of Extension (DoE); (ii) State Departments of Agriculture (DoA), as well as the State Agricultural Universities (SAUs); (iii) the Departments of Agriculture (DoA), Animal Husbandry (DAH), Horticulture (DoH) and Fisheries (DoF), as well as the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs) and, more recently, the Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at the District level; (iv) also, there are a wide variety of producers groups, including cooperatives and federations of milk, fruits, cotton, oilseeds, coconut, spices etc.; as well as (v) civil society organizations, such as the Non-governmental Organization (NGOs). In agricultural innovation systems, there are still large gaps between research and extension approaches. Hence, there is need to evaluate the performance and socio-economic impacts of research and extension programs. Also, a greater understanding of Public Private Partnership is also required; including the mechanisms that help encourage partnerships. There is a want for a thorough evaluation of extension approaches in order to identify best practices and to understand their impact on farming communities in reaching small-scale and marginal farmers. The present study tries to analyze the role played by public sector institutions in India.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 49107.

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Date of creation: 14 Aug 2013
Date of revision: 16 Aug 2013
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:49107

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Keywords: Public sector extension; SWOT Analysis; India;

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  1. Birner, Regina & Anderson, Jock R., 2007. "How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy," IFPRI discussion papers 729, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Raabe, Katharina, 2008. "Reforming the agricultural extension system in India: What do we know about what works where and why?," IFPRI discussion papers 775, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Singh, K.M. & Swanson, Burton E. & Jha, A.K. & Meena, M.S., 2012. "Extension Reforms and Innovations in Technology Dissemination- ATMA Model in India," MPRA Paper 48734, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Oct 2012.
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