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Extension Reforms and Innovations in Technology Dissemination- ATMA Model in India


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  • Singh, K.M.
  • Swanson, Burton E.
  • Jha, A.K.
  • Meena, M.S.


Decentralizing a large, complex national extension system is not easy, but the Government of India appears to be moving toward this long-term goal. Although ATMA model has been successful in addressing many of the extension problems and has shown exceptional impacts during the NATP phase but it seems to be going the T&V way. It is therefore, imperative that in the country like India, which has a vast territory and extremely diverse socio-economic and agro-climatic situations, ATMA model should be introduced and implemented with utter cautious. Different ATMAs should be empowered with sufficient administrative, financial and implementation flexibilities to address the basic problems in their operational jurisdiction. The use of FIGs to mobilize men, women, and young people around common interests, such as the production of flowers, fruits, vegetables, milk, fish and other high-value products, has energized both the farming community and the extension staff. Many FIGs have joined to form farmer associations or federations that can gain economies of scale in serving larger markets. Developing strong farmer organizations is a positive and necessary step in providing cost-effective extension services that will increase the income and employment of small-scale and marginal farm households. The block-level FACs are operational in most project blocks, but rural women and other disadvantaged groups still need more representation. Internal conflicts continue between priorities set by the ATMA Governing Boards and the heads of the line departments in allocating central government resources. The BTTs are still learning how to work together in utilizing a farming systems approach with multiple funding sources. There is no doubt that something that resembles a 21st centre vision of agricultural extension is needed and this means substantial reforms in public policies and services. Adding urgency to this is the ever-increasing complexity of agricultural sector development and the sector’s acknowledged role in poverty reduction. Of course, it is all too easy to criticise new approaches, such as ATMA. It is also important to realise that in a country like India and, indeed, elsewhere, administrative traditions and realities place limits on what is possible and politically feasible even as a pilot. But the challenge remains of how to break out of this best practice to best fit impasse.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 48734.

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Date of creation: 30 Oct 2012
Date of revision: 30 Oct 2012
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48734

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Keywords: Market-led Extension; Demand-driven extension; Extension Reforms; Indian Extension system;

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Cited by:
  1. Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Role of State Agricultural Universities and Directorates of Extension Education in Agricultural Extension in India," MPRA Paper 49108, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Aug 2013.
  2. Singh, K.M., 2008. "An Assessment of Technology Transfer System in Afghanistan: The Case of Balkh and Nangarhar provinces," MPRA Paper 45693, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 23 Aug 2008.
  3. Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Singh, R.K.P. & Kumar, Abhay & Kumar, Ujjwal, 2009. "Agricultural Technology Development Agency (ATMA): A Study of its Impact in Pilot Districts in Bihar, India," MPRA Paper 45544, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Nov 2009.
  4. Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Singh, R.K.P. & Kumar, Abhay & Kumar, Ujjwal, 2009. "Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA): A Study of its Impact in Pilot Districts in Bihar, India," MPRA Paper 45549, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Nov 2009.
  5. Meena, M.S. & Singh, K.M. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints," MPRA Paper 48324, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Jul 2013.
  6. Singh, K.M. & Kumar, Ajay, 2008. "A Strategy for Improving the Technology Transfer System in Afghanistan through ATMA Model using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Approach," MPRA Paper 45692, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Nov 2008.
  7. Singh, K.M. & Singh, R.K.P. & Kumar, Abhay, 2013. "A Socio-Economic Study on Adoption of Modern Agricultural Technologies in Bihar, India," MPRA Paper 52032, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Dec 2013.
  8. Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Extension in India by Public Sector Institutions: An Overview," MPRA Paper 49107, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Aug 2013.


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