Outward FDI, merchandise and services trade: evidence from Singapore
AbstractThis paper aims to explore the causality pattern between OFDI and major external trade components (i.e. exports and imports of merchandise as well as services) using Singapore as a case, since it is one of the largest outward investors in the Asian region, and is overtly trade-dependent. The findings reveal that there is evidence of OFDI-led trade hypothesis, particularly, merchandise exports and imports, an indication for OFDI to open up important channels for intra-firm trade activities, home country sourcing and backward integration. However, there is no evidence of causality relationships between Singapore’s OFDI and services trade because the nature of services is mainly to provide market presence in the consuming country. As such, Singaporean multinationals are likely to outsource their services either from the host country services sector or their own services-supporting subsidiaries that have been relocated abroad. The present study provides implications for policy formulation on strengthening the OFDI-services trade linkages.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35377.
Date of creation: Jul 2011
Date of revision:
Outward FDI; multinationals; Singapore; Granger causality; merchandise and services trade;
Other versions of this item:
- Koi Nyen Wong & Soo Khoon Goh, 2013. "Outward FDI, merchandise and services trade: evidence from Singapore," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 276-291, April.
- F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-01-03 (All new papers)
- NEP-INT-2012-01-03 (International Trade)
- NEP-SEA-2012-01-03 (South East Asia)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1989.
"Product Development and International Trade,"
3445094, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1990. "Product Development and International Trade," NBER Working Papers 2540, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1988. "Product Development And International Trade," Papers 132, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Goh, Soo Khoon & Wong, Koi Nyen, 2011. "Malaysia's outward FDI: The effects of market size and government policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 497-510, May.
- Roger Svensson, 1996. "Effects of overseas production on home country exports: Evidence based on Swedish multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 132(2), pages 304-329, September.
- Toda, Hiro Y & Phillips, Peter C B, 1993.
"Vector Autoregressions and Causality,"
Econometric Society, vol. 61(6), pages 1367-93, November.
- Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2001. "Overseas Investment and Firm Exports," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 108-22, February.
- Lipsey, Robert E & Weiss, Merle Yahr, 1984. "Foreign Production and Exports of Individual Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(2), pages 304-08, May.
- Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
- Helpman, Elhanan, 1984.
"A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations,"
3445092, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Helpman, Elhanan, 1984. "A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(3), pages 451-71, June.
- Bruce A. Blonigen, 1999.
"In Search of Substitution Between Foreign Production and Exports,"
NBER Working Papers
7154, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blonigen, Bruce A., 2001. "In search of substitution between foreign production and exports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 81-104, February.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Michael W. Klein, 1999.
"International trade and factor mobility: an empirical investigation,"
81, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Michael W. Klein, 1999. "International Trade and Factor Mobility: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 7196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Clausing, Kimberly A, 2000. "Does Multinational Activity Displace Trade?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(2), pages 190-205, April.
- Ma, Yue & Morikawa, Koichiro & Shone, Ronald, 2000. "A macroeconomic model of direct investment in foreign affiliates of Japanese firms," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 311-335, December.
- Ellingsen, Gaute & Likumahuwa, Winfried & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2006. "Outward FDI by Singapore : a different animal?," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3947, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.