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Child workers in India: an overview of macro dimensions

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  • Mukherjee, Dipa

Abstract

Child labour is in focus for last two decades as it robs children of the chance to enhance human capital. This paper examines the Indian situation using data from 50th, 55th and 61st rounds of NSSO Surveys. Child Workers have declined from 9.1 million in 1993 to 5.8 million in 2004, declining by 0.04 percent per annum. Incidence of Child Labour is more in Rural areas, higher among 10-14 years age-group, and more prominent among Boys, and quite disparate across states. Another 30 million children in 2003-04, about 13 percent of total, are ‘Nowhere Children’. Incidence of Domestic Duties and Nowhere Children are higher among girls. Poverty emerges to be necessary condition thereby preparing the breeding ground but not sufficient to drive the children to the labour market. Lack of Educational infrastructure is found to be very important in this respect. This includes not only the physical but also the human component, which is emerging to be more crucial. Poverty alleviation programmes must therefore be complemented by expansion of educational infrastructure for eradicating child labour.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35049.

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Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision: 2011
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35049

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Keywords: Child Labour; Poverty; Nowhere Children; Schooling; India;

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References

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  1. Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2004. "Why Should We Care About Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor," NBER Working Papers 10980, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Eric V. Edmonds, 2007. "Child Labor," NBER Working Papers 12926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999. "Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2116, The World Bank.
  4. Sonia Bhalotra & Chris Heady, 2000. "Child farm labour: theory and evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6654, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Anu Rammohan, 2000. "The Interaction of Child-labour and Schooling in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Perspective," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 25(2), pages 85-99, December.
  6. Ray, R., 1998. "Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study," Papers 1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
  7. Ray, R., 2000. "The Determinants of Child Labour and Child Schooling in Ghana," Papers 2000-5, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
  8. Partha Deb & Furio Rosati, 2002. "Determinants of Child Labor and School Attendance: The Role of Household Unobservables," Economics Working Paper Archive at Hunter College 02/9, Hunter College Department of Economics.
  9. Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio C., 2000. "Why do Indian Children Work, and is it Bad for Them?," IZA Discussion Papers 115, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Jafarey, Saqib & Lahiri, Sajal, 2002. "Will trade sanctions reduce child labour?: The role of credit markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 137-156, June.
  11. Manabi Majumdar, 2001. "Child Labour as a Human Security Problem: Evidence from India," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(3), pages 279-304.
  12. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence Katz, 2003. "Mass Secondary Schooling and the State," NBER Working Papers 10075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Saqib Jafarey & Sajal Lahiri, 2001. "Child Labour," World Economics, World Economics, Economic & Financial Publishing, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 2(1), pages 69-93, January.
  14. Heady, Christopher, 2003. "The Effect of Child Labor on Learning Achievement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 385-398, February.
  15. Dehejia, Rajeev H. & Beegle, Kathleen & Gatti, Roberta, 2003. "Child labor, income shocks, and access to credit," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3075, The World Bank.
  16. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Christopher, 2001. "Child farm labour : the wealth paradox," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24088, The World Bank.
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