Costly Pollution Abatement, Competitiveness, and Plant Location Decisions
AbstractThe US-Mexico free-trade debate included some theoretical assertions that were then used as arguments against trade and investment liberalization. (1) Trade liberalization increases the degree to which production is internationally relocated in response to environmental restrictions (`environmental dumping'?). (2) Investment liberalization, leading to multinational firms, similarly increases the production and welfare response to costly environmental restrictions. This paper adapts an oligopoly model, in which multinationals can arise endogenously, to examine these arguments. The findings are: (1) Trade liberalization increases production sensitivity to costly environmental restrictions, but arguments against liberal trade on welfare grounds do not follow. (2) Multinationals do not increase the production-reallocation effect caused by environmental restrictions or regulations. The inter-firm reallocation of production by competitive market forces in the absence of multinationals is slightly larger than the intra-firm reallocation when multinationals are present. In addition, the paper finds that the form taken by cost increases is crucial: restrictions that fall on fixed costs (e.g., more efficient burners and motors) have much smaller effects on production and welfare than restrictions that fall on marginal costs (e.g., cleaner fuels).
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5490.
Date of creation: Mar 1996
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Resource and Energy Economics 19 (1997): 299-320.
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Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
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Other versions of this item:
- Markusen, James R., 1997. "Costly pollution abatement, competitiveness and plant location decisions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 299-320, November.
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- Q20 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - General
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- Venables, Anthony J., 1985. "Trade and trade policy with imperfect competition: The case of identical products and free entry," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 1-19, August.
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NBER Working Papers
3671, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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- James R. Markusen, 2004. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633078, December.
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- Michael Rauscher, 1995. "Environmental regulation and the location of polluting industries," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 229-244, August.
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