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World Markets for Mergers and Acquisitions

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  • Isil Erel
  • Rose C. Liao
  • Michael S. Weisbach

Abstract

Despite the fact that one-third of worldwide mergers involve firms from different countries, the vast majority of the academic literature on mergers studies domestic mergers. What little has been written about cross-border mergers has focused on public firms, usually from the United States. Yet, the vast majority of cross-border mergers involve private firms that are not from the United States. We provide an analysis of a sample of 56,978 cross-border mergers occurring between 1990 and 2007. We first characterize the patterns of who buys whom: Geography matters, with firms being much more likely to purchase firms in nearby countries than in countries far away. Purchasers are usually but not always from developed countries and they tend to purchase firms in countries with lower investor protection and accounting standards. A significant factor in determining acquisition patterns is currency movements; firms tend to purchase firms from countries relative to which the acquirer’s currency has appreciated. In addition economy-wide factors reflected in the country’s stock market returns lead to acquisitions as well. Both the currency and stock market effect could reflect either misvaluation or wealth explanations. Our evidence is more consistent with the wealth explanation than the misvaluation explanation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15132.

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Date of creation: Jul 2009
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Publication status: published as “Determinants of Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions,” (with Isil Erel and Rose C. Liao), The Journal of Finance, Vol. 67 (June 2012) pp. 1045-1082.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15132

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Cited by:
  1. Caiazza, Stefano & Clare, Andrew & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2012. "What do bank acquirers want? Evidence from worldwide bank M&A targets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2641-2659.
  2. Caiazza, Stefano & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco & Trovato, Giovanni, 2011. "Do domestic and cross-border M&As differ? Cross-country evidence from the banking sector," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp11061, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
  3. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2013. "Cross-border mergers in vertically related industries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 97-108.
  4. Caiazza, Stefano & Clare, Andrew & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2011. "What do foreigners want? Evidence from targets in bank cross-border M&As," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp11058, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
  5. Deshpande, Shreesh & Svetina, Marko & Zhu, PengCheng, 2012. "Analyst coverage of acquiring firms and value creation in cross-border acquisitions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 212-229.

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