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The Use of Full-line Forcing Contracts in the Video Rental Industry

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  • Justin Ho
  • Katherine Ho
  • Julie Holland Mortimer

Abstract

We provide an empirical study of bundling in a supply chain, referred to as fullline forcing. We use an extensive dataset on contracts between video retailers and movie distributors to analyze the choices made on both sides of the market: which distributors offer full-line forcing contracts, which retailers take them up, and whether their decisions are profitable. Most large distributors offer full-line forcing contracts in our data. Our simulations indicate that their choices of which contracts to offer are profit-maximizing. However, many retailers prefer to utilize linear pricing contracts even when our model indicates that this may not be profit-maximizing.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14588.

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Date of creation: Dec 2008
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Publication status: published as Katherine Ho & Justin Ho & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2012. "The Use of Full-Line Forcing Contracts in the Video Rental Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 686-719, April.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14588

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  1. Justin Ho & Katherine Ho & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2010. "Analyzing the Welfare Impacts of Full-line Forcing Contracts," NBER Working Papers 16318, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Julie Holland Mortimer, 2007. "Price Discrimination, Copyright Law, and Technological Innovation: Evidence From The Introduction of DVDs," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1307-1350, 08.
  3. Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2008. "Demand Estimation Under Incomplete Product Availability," NBER Working Papers 14315, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Dennis W. Carlton & Michael Waldman, 1998. "The Strategic Use Of Tying To Preserve And Create Market Power In Evolving Industries," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State 145, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
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  7. McAfee, R Preston & McMillan, John & Whinston, Michael D, 1989. "Multiproduct Monopoly, Commodity Bundling, and Correlation of Values," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(2), pages 371-83, May.
  8. Choi, Jay Pil & Stefanadis, Christodoulos, 2001. "Tying, Investment, and the Dynamic Leverage Theory," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(1), pages 52-71, Spring.
  9. Posner, Richard A, 1975. "The Social Costs of Monopoly and Regulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(4), pages 807-27, August.
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  12. Gregory S. Crawford & Ali Yurukoglu, 2012. "The Welfare Effects of Bundling in Multichannel Television Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 643-85, April.
  13. Leslie M. Marx & Greg Shaffer, 2010. "Slotting Allowances and Scarce Shelf Space," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 575-603, 09.
  14. Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Antitrust and the New Industrial Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 24-28, May.
  15. Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Commodity Bundling by Single-Product Monopolies," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(1), pages 67-71, April.
  16. Chenghuan Sean Chu & Phillip Leslie & Alan Sorensen, 2006. "Nearly Optimal Pricing for Multiproduct Firms," 2006 Meeting Papers 830, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  17. Chenghuan Sean Chu & Phillip Leslie & Alan Sorensen, 2011. "Bundle-Size Pricing as an Approximation to Mixed Bundling," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(1), pages 263-303, February.
  18. Cardell, N. Scott, 1997. "Variance Components Structures for the Extreme-Value and Logistic Distributions with Application to Models of Heterogeneity," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(02), pages 185-213, April.
  19. Julie H. Mortimer, 2008. "Vertical Contracts in the Video Rental Industry -super-1," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(1), pages 165-199.
  20. Carbajo, Jose & de Meza, David & Seidmann, Daniel J, 1990. "A Strategic Motivation for Commodity Bundling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 283-98, March.
  21. Adams, William James & Yellen, Janet L, 1976. "Commodity Bundling and the Burden of Monopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 475-98, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Naoaki Minamihashi, 2012. "Natural Monopoly and Distorted Competition: Evidence from Unbundling Fiber-Optic Networks," Working Papers 12-26, Bank of Canada.
  2. Matthew Grennan, 2013. "Price Discrimination and Bargaining: Empirical Evidence from Medical Devices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(1), pages 145-77, February.
  3. Joao Macieira & Pedro Pereira & Joao Vareda, 2013. "Bundling Incentives in Markets with Product Complementarities: The Case of Triple-Play," Working Papers 13-15, NET Institute.
  4. Kai-Uwe Kuhn & Francine Lafontaine & Ying Fan, 2013. "Financial Constraints and Franchising Decisions," 2013 Meeting Papers 933, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  5. Gabriel Natividad & Olav Sorenson, 2011. "Spread Too Thin: Uncertainty Shocks and Diseconomies of Scope," Working Papers 11-04, NET Institute.

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