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Female Socialization: How Daughters Affect Their Legislator Fathers' Voting on Women's Issues

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  • Ebonya Washington
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    Abstract

    Economists have long concerned themselves with environmental influences, such as neighborhood, peers and family on individuals' beliefs and behaviors. However, the impact of children on parents' behavior has been little studied. Parenting daughters, psychologists have shown, increases feminist sympathies. I test the hypothesis that children, much like neighbors or peers, can influence adult behavior. I demonstrate that the propensity to vote liberally on reproductive rights is significantly increasing in a congress person's proportion of daughters. The result demonstrates not only the relevance of child to parent behavioral influence, but also the importance of personal ideology in a legislator's voting decisions as it is not explained away by voter preferences.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 11924.

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    Date of creation: Jan 2006
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    Publication status: published as Washington, Ebonya Lia. “Female Socialization: How Daughters Affect Their Legislator Fathers’ Voting on Women’s Issues.” American Economic Review 98, 1 (2008): 311-332.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:11924

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    1. Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F.P. Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1999. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," JCPR Working Papers, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research 62, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    2. Sendhil Mullainathan & Ebonya Washington, 2006. "Sticking with Your Vote: Cognitive Dissonance and Voting," NBER Working Papers 11910, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Jacob M. Markman & Steven G. Rivkin, 2001. "Does Peer Ability Affect Student Achievement?," NBER Working Papers 8502, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2005. "Why the Apple Doesn't Fall Far: Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 437-449, March.
    5. Ruhm, Christopher J., 2008. "Maternal employment and adolescent development," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 958-983, October.
    6. Raquel Fernández & Alessandra Fogli & Claudia Olivetti, 2004. "Mothers and Sons: Preference Formation and Female Labor Force Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 119(4), pages 1249-1299, November.
    7. Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, 09.
    8. Gordon B. Dahl & Enrico Moretti, 2004. "The Demand for Sons: Evidence from Divorce, Fertility, and Shotgun Marriage," NBER Working Papers 10281, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Lena Edlund & Rohini Pande, 2002. "Why Have Women Become Left-Wing? The Political Gender Gap And The Decline In Marriage," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 117(3), pages 917-961, August.
    10. Bruce Sacerdote, 2004. "What Happens When We Randomly Assign Children to Families?," NBER Working Papers 10894, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Black, Sandra & Devereux, Paul J. & Salvanes, Kjell G, 2003. "Why the Apple Doesn't Fall: Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 4150, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Caroline Hoxby, 2000. "Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation," NBER Working Papers 7867, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Nancy E. Reichman & Hope Corman & Kelly Noonan, 2003. "Effects of Child Health on Parents' Relationship Status," NBER Working Papers 9610, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Gordon B. Dahl & Lance Lochner, 2005. "The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement," NBER Working Papers 11279, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Rohini Pande, 2002. "Can mandated political representation increase policy influence for disadvantaged minorities? Theory and evidence from India," Discussion Papers, Columbia University, Department of Economics 0102-62, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
    16. Levitt, Steven D, 1996. "How Do Senators Vote? Disentangling the Role of Voter Preferences, Party Affiliation, and Senate Ideology," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 425-41, June.
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    Cited by:
    1. Graziella Bertocchi, 2007. "The Enfranchisement of Women and the Welfare State," CHILD Working Papers, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY wp15_07, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    2. Seo-Young Cho & Axel Dreher & Eric Neumayer, 2011. "The Spread of Anti-Trafficking Policies - Evidence from a New Index," CESifo Working Paper Series 3376, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Axel Dreher & Nathan Jensen, 2009. "Country or Leader? Political Change and UN General Assembly Voting," KOF Working papers, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich 09-217, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    4. Bernd Hayo & Stefan Voigt, 2012. "Explaining Constitutional Change: The Case of Judicial Independence," CESifo Working Paper Series 4032, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. repec:got:cegedp:119 is not listed on IDEAS

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