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Acquiring Knowledge Within and Across Firm Boundaries: Evidence from Clinical Development

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  • Pierre Azoulay
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    Abstract

    Considerable evidence suggests that information is acquired more easily within than across firm boundaries. I explore why this is observed in the setting of clinical development. Since the mid-1980s, pharmaceutical firms have partly contracted out the operational aspects of clinical trials to Contract Research Organizations (CROs). Using detailed project-level data for 53 firms, I document that even after controlling for a number of alternative explanations, knowledge-intensive projects are more likely to be assigned to internal teams, while data-intensive projects are more likely to be outsourced. The statistical exercise is complemented by in-depth interviews with six pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. The qualitative evidence confirms that incentives for knowledge and data production are more easily kept in balance in the firm's own internal labor market than in that of its suppliers. Moreover, firms use relational contracts to ensure that their employees' incentives are both balanced and relatively high-powered.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 10083.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2003
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    Publication status: published as Azoulay, Pierre. "Capturing Knowledge Within And Across Firm Boundaries: Evidence From Clinical Development," American Economic Review, 2004, v94(5,Dec), 1591-1612.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10083

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    Cited by:
    1. James D. Adams, 2005. "Industrial R&D Laboratories: Windows on Black Boxes?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(2_2), pages 129-137, 01.
    2. Pierre Azoulay, 2003. "Agents of Embeddedness," NBER Working Papers 10142, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Eliasson, Gunnar & Eliasson, Ă…sa, 2004. "Competence in Health Care - An Industrial Systems Analysis Using Competence Bloc Theory to Compare European and US Health Care," Ratio Working Papers 46, The Ratio Institute.
    4. Paulo J. Gomes & Nitin R. Joglekar, 2008. "Linking modularity with problem solving and coordination efforts," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(5), pages 443-457.
    5. James D. Adams & Mircea Marcu, 2004. "R&D Sourcing, Joint Ventures and Innovation: A Multiple Indicators Approach," NBER Working Papers 10474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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