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La croissance économique en Afrique sub-saharienne est-elle "pro-pauvres" ? Une investigation appliquée au Burkina Faso

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Au Burkina Faso, l'examen des effets de la croissance et de l'inégalité sur la pauvreté, au cours de la période 1994-98, suggère trois conclusions. Premièrement, dans un contexte macro-économique favorable, non corroboré par les informations micro-économiques, lesenquêtes prioritaires mettent en évidence une stabilité de la pauvreté monétaire, une vulnérabilité des ménages proportionnellement plus répandue, et d'importants changements structurels : progression du ratio de vulnérabilité ; importantes disparités géographiques et recomposition de la pauvreté rurale ; urbanisation de la pauvreté monétaire – augmentation des privations relatives plus rapide que la part de la population des villes – et non monétaire – augmentation de l'inégalité de la mortalité et de la malnutrition des enfants. Deuxièmement, fondée sur des approches en termes d'élasticités de pauvreté – indice de croissance pro-pauvres et taux de croissance d'équivalent pauvreté –, de « courbe d'incidence de croissance », et de variations relatives des parts des dépenses des pauvres, ainsi que par rapport à une appréhension ex post du bien-être, l'étude montre que, pour l'ensemble de l'économie, les changements inhérents à l'inégalité des ressources par tête, associés au processus de croissance, ont contribué à réduire ou à stabiliser la pauvreté. Dans ces conditions, il semblerait qu'un processus de croissance pro-pauvres ait prévalu au cours de la période. Troisièmement, la prise en considération des milieux rural et urbain, des types d'urbanisation, des régions, ainsi que de la vulnérabilité des ménages, relativise sensiblement l'appréciation précédente. Si le caractère pro-pauvres de la croissance en milieu rural semble confirmé par plusieurs indices – bien que les effets soient disparates –, la configuration de la croissance économique dans les villes est plutôt « pro-riches » – notamment, dans les deux grandes agglomérations –, l'effet dû à l'inégalité ayant renforcé l'effet de croissance défavorable aux pauvres. Néanmoins, une appréhension ex ante du bien-être des ménages démontre que, pour l'ensemble de l'économie, une configuration pro-pauvres de la croissance prévaut surtout pour les groupes dont la pauvreté est imputable à une variation des dépenses – pauvres transitoires involutifs et évolutifs –, comparativement à ceux dont la pauvreté est expliquée par une faiblesse de ces dernières – pauvres durables –, et, semble-t-il, parmi les premiers, plus pour ceux qui sont en même temps vulnérables – pauvres transitoires involutifs. Cette situation prédomine également en milieu rural, alors que dans les villes l'existence d'un processus de « croissance pro-riches » ne semble démontré que pour des formes de pauvreté caractérisant des ménages qui sont en même temps vulnérables – pauvres durables et transitoires involutifs. De tels résultats pourraient questionner l'opportunité des politiques de lutte contre la pauvreté, fondées sur des indicateurs agrégés du bien-être des ménages ou des individus, une préoccupation centrale du « Cadre stratégique de lutte contre la pauvreté » en cours de révision. In Burkina Faso, the analysis of the effects of the growth and inequality on poverty, during the period 1994-98, suggests three conclusions. Firstly, in a favourable macro-economic context, not corroborated by micro-economic information, the priority surveys highlight a stability of monetary poverty, a households vulnerability proportionally more widespread, and significant structural changes: progression of the vulnerability ratio; significant geographicaldisparities and new structure of rural poverty; urbanization of monetary poverty – increase in the relative deprivations faster than the share of the population of the cities – and non-monetary – increase in the inequality of child mortality and malnutrition. Secondly, basedon approaches in terms of elasticities of poverty – pro-poor growth index and poverty equivalentgrowth rate –, « growth incidence curve », and relative variations of the shares of the expenditure of the poor, and connected to an ex post welfare apprehension, the study shows that,for the whole of the economy, the changes inherent in the inequality of the resources percapita, associated to the process of growth, contributed to reduce or to stabilize poverty.Under these conditions, it would seem that a pro-poor growth process prevailed during the period. Thirdly, the consideration of the rural and urban zones, types of urbanization, areas,as well ashouseholds vulnerability, relativizes the preceding appreciation appreciably. If thepro-poor growth process in rural zones seems confirmed by several indices – although the effectsare disparate –, the configuration of the economic growth in the cities is rather « pro-rich » –in particular, in the two great towns –, the effect due to the inequality having reinforced the growth effect unfavourable to the poor. Nevertheless, an ex ante apprehension of the households welfare shows that, for the whole of the economy, a pro-poor growth configuration prevails, especially for the groups whose poverty is explained by a variation of the expenditure – involutive and evolutive transient poor –, compared to those whose poverty is explained by limited resources – durable poor –, and, apparently, among the first, more for those which areat the same time vulnerable – involutive transient poor. This situation also prevails in rural areas, whereas in the cities, the existence of a pro-rich growth seems only proven for types of poverty related to households which are at the same time vulnerable – durable and involutive transient poor. Such results could question the appropriateness of the policies of fight against poverty, based on aggregate welfare indicators of the households or individuals, a central concern of the « Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper », in the course of revision in the country. (Full text in French)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 83.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2003
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Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:83

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Cited by:
  1. Faouzi SBOUI, 2012. "Effects Of Growth And Inequality," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 35, pages 57-80.

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