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Import Churning and Export Performance of Multi-Product Firms

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  • Jože P. Damijan
  • Jozef Konings
  • Sašo Polanec

Abstract

This paper analyzes the impact of churning in the imported varieties of capital and intermediate inputs on firm export scope and productivity. Using detailed data on imports and exports at the firm–product-market level, we document substantial churning in both imports and exports for the Slovenian manufacturing firms in the period 1994-2008. On average, a firm changes about one quarter of imported and exported product-markets every year, while gross churning in terms of added and dropped product-markets is almost three times higher. A substantial share of this product churning is due to simultaneous imports and exports of firms in identical varieties within the same CN-8 product code (so called pass-on-trade). We find that churning in imported varieties is far more important than reduction in tariffs or declines in import prices for firms’ productivity growth and increased export product scope. We also find that gross churning has a bigger impact on firm productivity improvements by a factor of more than 10 in comparison to the net churning. Both adding and dropping of imported input varieties thus seem to be of utmost importance for firms aiming to optimize their input mix towards their most valuable inputs. These effects are further enhanced when excluding the simultaneous trade in identical varieties, suggesting that pass-on-trade has less favorable effects on firms’ long-run performance than regular trade.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven in its series LICOS Discussion Papers with number 30712.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:lic:licosd:30712

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Related research

Keywords: pass-on-trade; multi-product firms; imports; export scope; total factor productivity;

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References

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  1. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2010. "Wholesalers and Retailers in US Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 408-13, May.
  2. Kasahara, Hiroyuki & Rodrigue, Joel, 2008. "Does the use of imported intermediates increase productivity? Plant-level evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 106-118, August.
  3. Shang-Jin Wei & Jaebin Ahn & Amit K. Khandelwal, 2010. "The Role of Intermediaries in Facilitating Trade," Working Papers id:2557, eSocialSciences.
  4. Andrew B. Bernard & Marco Grazzi & Chiara Tomasi, 2012. "Intermediaries in International Trade: Direct Versus Indirect Modes of Export," CEP Discussion Papers dp1137, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  5. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc & Sašo Polanec, 2011. "Export Strategies of New Exporters: Why is Export Expansion Along the Extensive Margins so Sluggish?," LICOS Discussion Papers 27711, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  6. James E. Rauch & Joel Watson, 2004. "Network Intermediaries in International Trade," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 69-93, 03.
  7. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2012. "Wholesalers and Retailers in U.S. Trade (Long Version)," Working Papers 12-03, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  8. Jan De Loecker, 2004. "Do Exports Generate Higher Productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 15104, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  9. Maria Bas & Vanessa Strauss-Kahn, 2011. "Does Importing more Inputs Raise Exports? Firm Level Evidence from France," Working Papers 2011-15, CEPII research center.
  10. Bernard, Andrew B. & Blanchard, Emily & van Beveren, Ilke & Vandenbussche, Hylke, 2012. "Carry-Along Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 9067, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Jose P. Damijan & Boris Majcen, 2003. "Trade Policy in a Small Advanced Transition Economy: Trade Policy Review of Slovenia, 2002," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(9), pages 1369-1394, 09.
  12. Akerman, Anders, 2010. "A Theory on the Role of Wholesalers in International Trade based on Economies of Scope," Research Papers in Economics 2010:1, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  13. Gu, Wulong & Baldwin, John R., 2006. "The Impact of Trade on Plant Scale, Production-Run Length and Diversification," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2006038e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  14. James E. Rauch, 2001. "Business and Social Networks in International Trade," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1177-1203, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Exports, imports and firm survival: first evidence for manufacturing enterprises in Germany," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 149(1), pages 113-130, March.
  2. Mary Amiti & Oleg Itskhoki & Jozef Konings, 2012. "Importers, exporters, and exchange rate disconnect," Staff Reports 586, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  3. Jože Damijan & Jozef Konings & Sašo Polanec, 2013. "Pass-on trade: why do firms simultaneously engage in two-way trade in the same varieties?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 149(1), pages 85-111, March.

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