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Financial Restraints in the South Korean Miracle

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  • Panicos O Demetriades

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  • Kul B Luintel

Abstract

We provide novel empirical evidence on the effects of financial restraints on South Korean financial development. The evidence is linked to a simple model of the Korean banking system that encapsulates its cartelised nature, which predicts a positive association between financial development and (i) the degree of state control over the banking system, (ii) mild repression of lending rates. The model also predicts that in the presence of lending rate controls, increases in the level of the administered deposit rate are unlikely to influence financial deepening. We test the model empirically by constructing individual and summary measures of financial restraints. Our empirical findings are consistent with our theoretical predictions but contrast sharply with the predictions of earlier literature that postulates that interest rate ceilings and other financial restraints constitute sources of ‘financial repression’.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Leicester in its series Discussion Papers in Economics with number 00/5.

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Date of creation: Sep 2000
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Handle: RePEc:lec:leecon:00/5

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Keywords: Financial deepening; financial restraints;

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  1. Panicos O. Demetriades & Philip Arestis, 1996. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: Assessing the Evidence," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 96/16, Department of Economics, Keele University.
  2. Dalla, I. & Khatkhate, D., 1995. "Regulated Deregulation of the Financial System in Korea," World Bank - Discussion Papers 292, World Bank.
  3. Diaz-Alejandro, Carlos, 1985. "Good-bye financial repression, hello financial crash," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 1-24.
  4. Demetriades, Panicos O & Luintel, Kul B, 1996. "Financial Development, Economic Growth and Banker Sector Controls: Evidence from India," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 359-74, March.
  5. Ajit Singh, 1998. "Financial liberalisation, stockmarkets and economic development," Nova Economia, Economics Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil), vol. 8(1), pages 165-182.
  6. Panicos O. Demetriades & Khaled A.Hussein, 1995. "Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence from 16 Countries," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 95/13, Department of Economics, Keele University.
  7. Panicos Demetriades & Kul B. Luintel, 1995. "The Direct Costs of Financial Repression: Evidence from India," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 95/12, Department of Economics, Keele University.
  8. Sebastian Edwards, 1987. "Financial Deregulation and Segmented Capital Markets: The Case of Korea," UCLA Economics Working Papers 432, UCLA Department of Economics.
  9. Fry, Maxwell J., 1980. "Saving, investment, growth and the cost of financial repression," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 317-327, April.
  10. Philip Arestis & Panicos Demetriades, 1999. "Financial Liberalization: The Experience of Developing Countries," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 25(4), pages 441-457, Fall.
  11. Mathieson, Donald J., 1980. "Financial reform and stabilization policy in a developing economy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 359-395, September.
  12. Amsden, Alice H. & Euh, Yoon-Dae, 1993. "South Korea's 1980s financial reforms: Good-bye financial repression (maybe), hello new institutional restraints," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 379-390, March.
  13. Fry, Maxwell J, 1997. "In Favour of Financial Liberalisation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(442), pages 754-70, May.
  14. Kevin C. Murdock & Thomas F. Hellmann & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000. "Liberalization, Moral Hazard in Banking, and Prudential Regulation: Are Capital Requirements Enough?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 147-165, March.
  15. Demetriades, Panicos O & Luintel, Kul B, 1996. "Banking Sector Policies and Financial Development in Nepal," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 355-72, May.
  16. Van Wijnbergen, S., 1983. "Interest rate management in LDC's," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 433-452, September.
  17. Fry, Maxwell J, 1978. "Money and Capital or Financial Deepening in Economic Development?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 10(4), pages 464-75, November.
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