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Sources of Global Heterogeneity in Retail Spending

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Author Info

  • Nir Kshetri

    (The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA)

  • Ralf Bebenroth

    (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)

Abstract

Economies worldwide vary greatly in terms of how much their consumers spend on various types of retail activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the regulatory characteristics as well as the natures and strategies of businesses are related to retail spending. We employed random effect time series cross sectional (TSCS) models linear in parameters for forty-eight economies using annual data for the 1999-2008 period. The results provided strong support that economic freedom, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow and concentration of retail stores in an economy positively affect retail spending. We also found that tax and social security contributions as a proportion of the GDP is positively related to per capita grocery retail spending. A lack of data for a large number of economies, especially less developed ones potentially provides a limitation of this paper.

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File URL: http://www.rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp/academic/ra/dp/English/DP2011-03.pdf
File Function: First version, 2011
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number DP2011-03.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2011-03

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Related research

Keywords: Retail spending; FDI; Economic freedom; Time series cross sectional (TSCS) models;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

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  1. Rose, Andrew K., 2004. "Do WTO members have more liberal trade policy?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 209-235, July.
  2. Fuller, Wayne A. & Battese, George E., 1974. "Estimation of linear models with crossed-error structure," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 67-78, May.
  3. Regmi, Anita & Gehlhar, Mark J., 2005. "Processed Food Trade Pressured by Evolving Global Supply Chains," Amber Waves, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, February.
  4. Blisard, Noel & Stewart, Hayden, 2007. "Food Spending in American Households, 2003-04," Economic Information Bulletin 59033, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  5. Michael Keren & Gur Ofer, 2002. "The Role of FDI in Trade and Financial Services in Transition: What Distinguishes Transition Economies from Developing Economies?," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(1), pages 15-45, April.
  6. John R. Hanson, 2003. "Proxies in the New Political Economy: Caveat Emptor," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 41(4), pages 639-646, October.
  7. CĂ©dric Durand, 2007. "Externalities from foreign direct investment in the Mexican retailing sector," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(3), pages 393-411, May.
  8. Artis, Michael & Nixson, Frederick, 2007. "Economics of the European Union," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 4, number 9780199298969.
  9. El-Agraa,Ali (ed.), 2007. "The European Union," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521874434, October.
  10. Thomas Reardon & Spencer Henson & Julio Berdegué, 2007. "'Proactive fast-tracking' diffusion of supermarkets in developing countries: implications for market institutions and trade," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(4), pages 399-431, July.
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