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Entrepreneurship, Economic Conditions, and the Great Recession

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  • Fairlie, Robert W.

    ()
    (University of California, Santa Cruz)

Abstract

The "Great Recession" resulted in many business closings and foreclosures, but what effect did it have on business formation? On the one hand, recessions decrease potential business income and wealth, but on the other hand they restrict opportunities in the wage/salary sector leaving the net effect on entrepreneurship ambiguous. The most up-to-date microdata available – the 1996 to 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS) – are used to conduct a detailed analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the individual level to shed light on this question. Regression estimates indicate that local labor market conditions are a major determinant of entrepreneurship. Higher local unemployment rates are found to increase the probability that individuals start businesses. Home ownership and local home values for home owners are also found to have positive effects on business creation, but these effects are noticeably smaller. Additional regression estimates indicate that individuals who are initially not employed respond more to high local unemployment rates by starting businesses than wage/salary workers. The results point to a consistent picture – the positive influences of slack labor markets outweigh the negative influences resulting in higher levels of business creation. Using the regression estimates for the local unemployment rate effects, I find that the predicted trend in entrepreneurship rates tracks the actual upward trend in entrepreneurship extremely well in the Great Recession.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5725.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: May 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 2013, 22 (2), 207-231
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5725

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Keywords: self-employment; entrepreneurship; great recession; unemployment;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Robert W. Fairlie & Dean Karlan & Jonathan Zinman, 2012. "Behind the GATE Experiment: Evidence on Effects of and Rationales for Subsidized Entrepreneurship Training," NBER Working Papers 17804, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Gohmann, Stephan F. & Fernandez, Jose M., 2014. "Proprietorship and unemployment in the United States," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 289-309.
  3. Yu, Li & Orazem, Peter & Jolly, Robert W., 2013. "Entrepreneurship Over The Business Cycle," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 36672, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  4. Manuel Adelino & Song Ma & David T. Robinson, 2014. "Firm Age, Investment Opportunities, and Job Creation," NBER Working Papers 19845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Francine Lafontaine & Kathryn Shaw, 2014. "Serial Entrepreneurship: Learning by Doing?," NBER Working Papers 20312, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Fritsch, Michael & Kritikos, Alexander S. & Pijnenburg, Katharina, 2013. "Business Cycles, Unemployment and Entrepreneurial Entry: Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 7852, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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