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World Market for Mergers and Acquisitions

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Author Info

  • Erel, Isil

    (Ohio State University)

  • Liao, Rose C.

    (Rutgers University)

  • Weisbach, Michael S.

    ()
    (Ohio State University)

Abstract

Despite the fact that one-third of worldwide mergers involve firms from different countries, the vast majority of the academic literature on mergers studies domestic mergers. What little has been written about cross-border mergers has focused on public firms, usually from the United States. Yet, the vast majority of cross-border mergers involve private firms that are not from the United States. We provide an analysis of a sample of 56,978 cross-border mergers occurring between 1990 and 2007. We first characterize the patterns of who buys whom: Geography matters, with firms being much more likely to purchase firms in nearby countries than in countries far away. Purchasers are usually but not always from developed countries and they tend to purchase firms in countries with lower accounting standards. A significant factor in determining acquisition patterns is currency movements; firms tend to purchase firms from countries relative to which the currency of the acquirers country has appreciated. In addition, economy-wide factors reflected in the countrys stock market returns lead to acquisitions as well. Both the currency and stock market effect could suggest either misvaluation or wealth explanations. Our evidence is more consistent with the wealth explanation than the misvaluation explanation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for Financial Research in its series SIFR Research Report Series with number 75.

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Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 20 Sep 2010
Date of revision: 01 Jun 2011
Publication status: Forthcoming as Erel, Isil, Rose C. Liao and Michael S. Weisbach, 'World Market for Mergers and Acquisitions' in Journal of Finance.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:sifrwp:0075

Note: Please find an updated version on http://fisher.osu.edu/fin/faculty/weisbach/wpapers.html
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Keywords: Mergers; Currency movements; Market movements; Valuation;

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References

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  1. Arturo Bris & Christos Cabolis, 2005. "The Value of Investor Protection: Firm Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers," Yale School of Management Working Papers amz2455, Yale School of Management.
  2. Malcolm Baker & C. Fritz Foley & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2009. "Multinationals as Arbitrageurs: The Effect of Stock Market Valuations on Foreign Direct Investment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 337-369, January.
  3. Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines Jr., 2001. "Repatriation Taxes and Dividend Distortions," NBER Working Papers 8507, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Bruce A. Blonigen & Ronald B. Davies, 2002. "Do Bilateral Tax Treaties Promote Foreign Direct Investment?," NBER Working Papers 8834, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Fan, Joseph P. H. & Morck, Randall & Lixin Colin Xu & Yeung, Bernard, 2007. "Does"good government"draw foreign capital ? Explaining China's exceptional foreign direct investment inflow," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4206, The World Bank.
  6. Bris, Arturo & Brisley, Neil & Cabolis, Christos, 2008. "Adopting better corporate governance: Evidence from cross-border mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 224-240, June.
  7. Michael Klein & Joe Peek & Eric Rosengren, 2000. "Troubled Banks, Impaired Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Relative Access to Credit," NBER Working Papers 7845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
  9. Nicolas Coeurdacier & Roberto A. de Santis & Antonin Aviat, 2009. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and European integration," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pd, Sciences Po.
  10. Matthew Rhodes-Kropf & S. Viswanathan, 2004. "Market Valuation and Merger Waves," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(6), pages 2685-2718, December.
  11. Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
  12. Beata K. Smarzynska & Shang-Jin Wei, 2000. "Corruption and Composition of Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-Level Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7969, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Ming Dong & David Hirshleifer & Scott Richardson & Siew Hong Teoh, 2006. "Does Investor Misvaluation Drive the Takeover Market?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 725-762, 04.
  14. Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
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  16. Anusha Chari & Paige P. Ouimet & Linda L. Tesar, 2010. "The Value of Control in Emerging Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(4), pages 1741-1770, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2013. "Cross-border mergers in vertically related industries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 97-108.
  2. Deshpande, Shreesh & Svetina, Marko & Zhu, PengCheng, 2012. "Analyst coverage of acquiring firms and value creation in cross-border acquisitions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 212-229.
  3. Stafano Caiazza & Andrew Clare & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 2010. "What do foreigners want? Evidence from;targets in bank cross-border M&As," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 45, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
  4. Caiazza, Stefano & Clare, Andrew & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2012. "What do bank acquirers want? Evidence from worldwide bank M&A targets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2641-2659.
  5. Caiazza, Stefano & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco & Trovato, Giovanni, 2011. "Do domestic and cross-border M&As differ? Cross-country evidence from the banking sector," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp11061, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.

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