World Market for Mergers and Acquisitions
AbstractDespite the fact that one-third of worldwide mergers involve firms from different countries, the vast majority of the academic literature on mergers studies domestic mergers. What little has been written about cross-border mergers has focused on public firms, usually from the United States. Yet, the vast majority of cross-border mergers involve private firms that are not from the United States. We provide an analysis of a sample of 56,978 cross-border mergers occurring between 1990 and 2007. We first characterize the patterns of who buys whom: Geography matters, with firms being much more likely to purchase firms in nearby countries than in countries far away. Purchasers are usually but not always from developed countries and they tend to purchase firms in countries with lower accounting standards. A significant factor in determining acquisition patterns is currency movements; firms tend to purchase firms from countries relative to which the currency of the acquirers country has appreciated. In addition, economy-wide factors reflected in the countrys stock market returns lead to acquisitions as well. Both the currency and stock market effect could suggest either misvaluation or wealth explanations. Our evidence is more consistent with the wealth explanation than the misvaluation explanation.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for Financial Research in its series SIFR Research Report Series with number 75.
Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 20 Sep 2010
Date of revision: 01 Jun 2011
Publication status: Forthcoming as Erel, Isil, Rose C. Liao and Michael S. Weisbach, 'World Market for Mergers and Acquisitions' in Journal of Finance.
Note: Please find an updated version on http://fisher.osu.edu/fin/faculty/weisbach/wpapers.html
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Institute for Financial Research Drottninggatan 89, SE-113 60 Stockholm, Sweden
Web page: http://www.sifr.org/
More information through EDIRC
Mergers; Currency movements; Market movements; Valuation;
Other versions of this item:
- Erel, Isil & Liao, Rose C. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2009. "World Markets for Mergers and Acquisitions," Working Paper Series 2009-11, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
- Isil Erel & Rose C. Liao & Michael S. Weisbach, 2009. "World Markets for Mergers and Acquisitions," NBER Working Papers 15132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
- G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-09-25 (All new papers)
- NEP-COM-2010-09-25 (Industrial Competition)
- NEP-IFN-2010-09-25 (International Finance)
- NEP-IND-2010-09-25 (Industrial Organization)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael Klein & Joe Peek & Eric Rosengren, 2000.
"Troubled Banks, Impaired Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Relative Access to Credit,"
NBER Working Papers
7845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Michael W. Klein & Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2002. "Troubled Banks, Impaired Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Relative Access to Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(3), pages 664-682, June.
- Michael W. Klein & Eric Rosengren & Joe Peek, 2000. "Troubled banks, impaired foreign direct investment: the role of relative access to credit," Working Papers 00-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Anusha Chari & Paige P. Ouimet & Linda L. Tesar, 2010. "The Value of Control in Emerging Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(4), pages 1741-1770, April.
- Bruce A. Blonigen & Ronald B. Davies, 2002. "Do Bilateral Tax Treaties Promote Foreign Direct Investment?," NBER Working Papers 8834, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arturo Bris & Christos Cabolis, 2005.
"The Value of Investor Protection: Firm Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
amz2455, Yale School of Management.
- Arturo Bris & Christos Cabolis, 2008. "The Value of Investor Protection: Firm Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(2), pages 605-648, April.
- Nicolas Coeurdacier & Roberto A. De Santis & Antonin Aviat, 2009.
"Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and European integration,"
CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 24, pages 55-106, 01.
- Antonin Aviat & Roberto A. de Santis & Nicolas Coeurdacier, 2009. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and European integration," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pd, Sciences Po.
- Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
- Malcolm Baker & C. Fritz Foley & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2009. "Multinationals as Arbitrageurs: The Effect of Stock Market Valuations on Foreign Direct Investment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 337-369, January.
- MING DONG & David Hirshleifer & SCOTT RICHARSON & Siew Hong Teoh, 2004.
"Does Investor Misvaluation Drive the Takeover Market?,"
- Ming Dong & David Hirshleifer & Scott Richardson & Siew Hong Teoh, 2006. "Does Investor Misvaluation Drive the Takeover Market?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 725-762, 04.
- Swenson, Deborah L., 1994. "The impact of U.S. tax reform on foreign direct investment in the United States," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 243-266, June.
- Matthew Rhodes-Kropf & S. Viswanathan, 2004. "Market Valuation and Merger Waves," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(6), pages 2685-2718, December.
- Fan, Joseph P. H. & Morck, Randall & Lixin Colin Xu & Yeung, Bernard, 2007. "Does"good government"draw foreign capital ? Explaining China's exceptional foreign direct investment inflow," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4206, The World Bank.
- Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
- Bris, Arturo & Brisley, Neil & Cabolis, Christos, 2008. "Adopting better corporate governance: Evidence from cross-border mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 224-240, June.
- Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines Jr., 2001.
"Repatriation Taxes and Dividend Distortions,"
NBER Working Papers
8507, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Beata K. Smarzynska & Shang-Jin Wei, 2000. "Corruption and Composition of Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-Level Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7969, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
- Stafano Caiazza & Alberto Franco Pozzolo & Giovanni Trovato, 2011.
"Do domestic and cross-border M&As differ? Cross-country evidence from the banking sector,"
Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers
52, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
- Caiazza, Stefano & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco & Trovato, Giovanni, 2011. "Do domestic and cross-border M&As differ? Cross-country evidence from the banking sector," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp11061, University of Molise, Dept. SEGeS.
- Deshpande, Shreesh & Svetina, Marko & Zhu, PengCheng, 2012. "Analyst coverage of acquiring firms and value creation in cross-border acquisitions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 212-229.
- Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2013. "Cross-border mergers in vertically related industries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 97-108.
- Caiazza, Stefano & Clare, Andrew & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2012. "What do bank acquirers want? Evidence from worldwide bank M&A targets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2641-2659.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anki Helmer).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.