Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

The Public Budget Balance - Fiscal Indicators and Cyclical Sensitivity in the Nordic Countries


Author Info

  • Braconier, Henrik

    (The Research Institute of Industrial Economics)

  • Holden, Steinar

    (University of Oslo)


This paper analyzes the relationship between the budget balance and the cyclical situation of the economy. There are two main purposes. In the first analysis, we develop a method for economic policy, and induced changes that arise due to changes in the economy. The discretionary component of the change in the budget balance measure changes in fiscal stance and can be used as a fiscal policy indicator. As a measure of changes in fiscal policy, the proposed indicator has two advantages over existing indicators used by international organizations. First, the adjustment of changes in the economy is attached to important tax bases, rather than to the GDP, leading to higher accuracy when tax bases are not perfectly component does not include the effect on the budget balance of structural changes in the economy (as measured by potential output), that are not directly related to fiscal policy. The induced change component can be used to evaluate the cyclical sensitivity of public finances with respect to changes in the economy, when fiscal policy is unchanged. We also suggest how a decomposition of the level of the primary budget balance into a structural and cyclical component can be conducted. The second main purpose of the study is to empirically investigate the cyclical sensitivity of public finances in the Nordic countries. The analysis focuses on the peroid 1980 to 1997. We use three different methods for evaluating the sensitivity of public finances. Overall, public finances in all the Nordic countries are sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy. The estimated sensitivity of the budget balance as a share of GDP with respect to GDP growth is 0.6-0.8 for Sweden, 0.5-0.75 for Denmark, 0.4-0.6 for Finland and Norway and 0.2-0.6 for Iceland, given constant fiscal policy. It is likely, however, that our estimates are biased downward as data problems lead us to underestimate the sensitivity while countercyclical fiscal policy may lead to even more sensitive public finances. In the empirical analysis we also study how different types of shocks affect public finances. The result show that a domestic savings shock has the strongest effect on public finances, while an aggregate demand shock affects public finances less and en export shock has the smallest effect on public finances. We conclude the paper by discussing the problems associated with analysing the effect of fiscal policy on the economy by use of simple indicators, as well as a few brief remarks on the normative question of how sensitive the budget should be to economic fluctuations.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Institute of Economic Research in its series Working Paper with number 67.

as in new window
Length: 73 pages
Date of creation: 01 Nov 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:nierwp:0067

Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Institute of Economic Research, P.O. Box 3116, SE-103 62 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: 46-(0)8-453 59 00
Fax: 46-(0)8-453 59 80
Web page:
More information through EDIRC

Related research



References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Olivier Jean Blanchard, 1990. "Suggestions for a New Set of Fiscal Indicators," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 79, OECD Publishing.
  2. Gali, Jordi, 1994. "Government size and macroeconomic stability," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 117-132, January.
  3. Holden, S. & Nymoen, R., 1998. "Measuring Structural Unemployment: Is there a Rough and Ready Answer?.`," Memorandum 31/1998, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  4. Jørgen Elmeskov & Karl Pichelmann, 1993. "Unemployment and Labour Force Participation: Trends and Cycles," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 130, OECD Publishing.
  5. Matthew D. Shapiro & Joel Slemrod, 1995. "Consumer Response to the Timing of Income: Evidence from a Change in Tax Withholding," NBER Working Papers 4344, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Jean-Claude Chouraqui & Robert P. Hagemann & Nicola Sartor, 1990. "Indicators of Fiscal Policy: A Re-Examination," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 78, OECD Publishing.
  7. Barro, Robert J., 1979. "On the Determination of the Public Debt," Scholarly Articles 3451400, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  8. Rodseth, Asbjorn, 1984. "Progressive taxes and automatic stabilization in an open economy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 265-282.
  9. Peter Brandner & Leopold Diebalek & Helene Schuberth, 1998. "Structural Budget Deficits and Sustainability of Fiscal Positions in the European Union," Working Papers 26, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Braconier, Henrik & Forsfält, Tomas, 2004. "A New Method for Constructing a Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance: the Case of Sweden," Working Paper 90, National Institute of Economic Research.
  2. Nigel Andrew Chalk, 2002. "Structural Balances and All That," IMF Working Papers 02/101, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Martin Larch & Matteo Salto, 2003. "Fiscal rules, inertia and discretionary fiscal policy," European Economy - Economic Papers 194, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  4. Signe Krogstrup, 2002. "Should We Pay Attention to Indicators of Fiscal Impact on Demand?," IHEID Working Papers 01-2002, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
  5. Anderson, Torben M, 2002. " International Integration, Risk and the Welfare State," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 104(3), pages 343-64, September.
  6. Andersen, Torben M, 2002. "International Integration, Risk and the Welfare State," IZA Discussion Papers 456, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Sergio Ginebri & Bernardo Maggi & Manuel Turco, 2005. "The automatic reaction of the Italian government budget to fundamentals: an econometric analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(1), pages 67-81.
  8. Carl E. Gjersem, 2002. "A presentation of Generational Accounting in Norway," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 28, pages 61-73.


This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


Access and download statistics


When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:nierwp:0067. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Henrik Hellström).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.