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Another Perspective on Gender Specific Access to Credit in Africa

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  • Henrik Hansen

    ()
    (Institute of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)

  • John Rand

    ()
    (Institute of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)

Abstract

Using firm level data from eight Sub-Saharan Africa countries we examine credit constraint differentials between male and female manufacturing entrepreneurs. Enterprises owned by female entrepreneurs are less likely to be credit constrained compared to their male counterparts. The magnitude of this credit constraint gap varies with constraint and ownership definitions but the direction of the gap does not. Using a generalized Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we investigate if the gap is due to differences in observable characteristics or to unexplained variations in the returns to these characteristics. We find the gap to be associated with the unexplained component. We argue that the finding is mainly due to female gender favoritism in loans to micro and small firms because (i) the gap is reversed for medium size enterprises and, (ii) we find no sign of superior female entrepreneurial performance in terms of capacity utilization, labor productivity or firm size growth.

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File URL: http://okonomi.foi.dk/workingpapers/WPpdf/WP2011/WP_2011_14_gender_specific_credit.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics in its series IFRO Working Paper with number 2011/14.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:foi:wpaper:2011_14

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Keywords: Credit; Entrepreneurship; Gender; Private Sector; SMEs;

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References

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  1. Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2011. "Gender and finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : are women disadvantaged ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5571, The World Bank.
  2. Thomas Bauer & Mathias Sinning, 2006. "An Extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition to Non-Linear Models," RWI Discussion Papers, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung 0049, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
  3. Arne Bigsten & Mans Söderbom, 2006. "What Have We Learned from a Decade of Manufacturing Enterprise Surveys in Africa?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 241-265.
  4. Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps, 2000. "Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in Africa," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-24, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  5. Ben Jann, 2008. "A Stata implementation of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition," ETH Zurich Sociology Working Papers, ETH Zurich, Chair of Sociology 5, ETH Zurich, Chair of Sociology, revised 14 May 2008.
  6. Bruce Byiers & John Rand & Finn Tarp & Jeanet Bentzen, 2010. "Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(1), pages 37-55.
  7. Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2003. "Exporting Raises Productivity in Sub-Saharan African Manufacturing Plants," NBER Working Papers 10020, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2000. "Ethnicity and credit in African manufacturing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 205-235, February.
  9. Arne Bigsten & Måns Söderbom, 2011. "Industrial Strategies for Economic Recovery and Long-term Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, African Development Bank, vol. 23(2), pages 161-171.
  10. Buvinic, Mayra & Berger, Marguerite, 1990. "Sex differences in access to a small enterprise development fund in Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 695-705, May.
  11. Fisman Raymond J, 2003. "Ethnic Ties and the Provision of Credit: Relationship-Level Evidence from African Firms," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-21, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Conor M. O.Toole, 2012. "Does Financial Liberalisation Improve Access to Investment Finance in Developing Countries?," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  2. Casey, Eddie & O'Toole, Conor, 2013. "Bank-lending constraints and alternative financing during the financial crisis: Evidence from European SMEs," Papers, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) WP450, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).

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