Another Perspective on Gender Specific Access to Credit in Africa
AbstractUsing firm level data from eight Sub-Saharan Africa countries we examine credit constraint differentials between male and female manufacturing entrepreneurs. Enterprises owned by female entrepreneurs are less likely to be credit constrained compared to their male counterparts. The magnitude of this credit constraint gap varies with constraint and ownership definitions but the direction of the gap does not. Using a generalized Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we investigate if the gap is due to differences in observable characteristics or to unexplained variations in the returns to these characteristics. We find the gap to be associated with the unexplained component. We argue that the finding is mainly due to female gender favoritism in loans to micro and small firms because (i) the gap is reversed for medium size enterprises and, (ii) we find no sign of superior female entrepreneurial performance in terms of capacity utilization, labor productivity or firm size growth.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics in its series IFRO Working Paper with number 2011/14.
Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Credit; Entrepreneurship; Gender; Private Sector; SMEs;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2011-11-07 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2011-11-07 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2011-11-07 (Development)
- NEP-ENT-2011-11-07 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-HME-2011-11-07 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-LAB-2011-11-07 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-MFD-2011-11-07 (Microfinance)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bruce Byiers & John Rand & Finn Tarp & Jeanet Bentzen, 2010. "Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(1), pages 37-55.
- Arne Bigsten & Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps & Bernard Gauthier & Jan Willem Gunning & Måns Söderbom & Abena Oduro & Remco Oostendorp & Cathy Pattillo & Francis Teal & Albert Zeufa, 2000.
"Credit constraints in manufacturing enterprises in Africa,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
2000-24, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Arne Bigsten & Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps & Bernard Gauthier & Jan Willem Gunning & Abena Oduro & Remco Oostendorp & Cathy Patillo & M�ns S–derbom & Francis Teal & Albert Zeuf, 2003. "Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in Africa," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 12(1), pages 104-125, March.
- Paul Collier & Stefan Dercon & Marcel Fafchamps, 2000. "Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in Africa," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-24, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Thomas Bauer & Mathias Sinning, 2006.
"An Extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition to Non-Linear Models,"
RWI Discussion Papers
0049, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
- Thomas Bauer & Mathias Sinning, 2008. "An extension of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition to nonlinear models," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer, vol. 92(2), pages 197-206, May.
- Ben Jann, 2008.
"A Stata implementation of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition,"
ETH Zurich Sociology Working Papers
5, ETH Zurich, Chair of Sociology, revised 14 May 2008.
- Ben Jann, 2008. "OAXACA: Stata module to compute the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition," Statistical Software Components S456936, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 25 Aug 2011.
- Van Biesebroeck, Jo, 2003.
"Exporting raises productivity in Sub-Saharan African manufacturing plants,"
Open Access publications from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
urn:hdl:123456789/253801, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
- Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2003. "Exporting Raises Productivity in Sub-Saharan African Manufacturing Plants," NBER Working Papers 10020, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arne Bigsten & Mans Söderbom, 2006.
"What Have We Learned from a Decade of Manufacturing Enterprise Surveys in Africa?,"
World Bank Research Observer,
World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 241-265.
- Bigsten, Arne & Soderbom, Mans, 2005. "What have we learned from a decade of manufacturing enterprise surveys in Africa ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3798, The World Bank.
- Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2011. "Gender and finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : are women disadvantaged ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5571, The World Bank.
- Fisman Raymond J, 2003. "Ethnic Ties and the Provision of Credit: Relationship-Level Evidence from African Firms," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-21, October.
- Fafchamps, Marcel, 2000. "Ethnicity and credit in African manufacturing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 205-235, February.
- Buvinic, Mayra & Berger, Marguerite, 1990. "Sex differences in access to a small enterprise development fund in Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 695-705, May.
- Bigsten Arne & Söderbom Måns, 2011. "Industrial Strategies for Economic Recovery and Long-term Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 23(2), pages 161-171.
- Casey, Eddie & O'Toole, Conor, 2013. "Bank-lending constraints and alternative financing during the financial crisis: Evidence from European SMEs," Papers WP450, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Conor M. O.Toole, 2012. "Does Financial Liberalisation Improve Access to Investment Finance in Developing Countries?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Geir Tveit).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.