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Corporate performance, board structure, and their determinants in the banking industry

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  • Renée B. Adams
  • Hamid Mehran

Abstract

The subprime crisis highlights how little we know about the governance of banks. This paper addresses a long-standing gap in the literature by analyzing board governance using a sample of banking firm data that spans forty years. We examine the relationship between board structure (size and composition) and bank performance, as well as some determinants of board structure. We document that mergers and acquisitions activity influences bank board composition, and we provide new evidence that organizational structure is significantly related to bank board size. We argue that these factors may explain why banking firms with larger boards do not underperform their peers in terms of Tobin's Q. Our findings suggest caution in applying regulations motivated by research on the governance of nonfinancial firms to banking firms. Since organizational structure is not specific to banks, our results suggest that it may be an important determinant for the boards of nonfinancial firms with complex organizational structures such as business groups.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 330.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:330

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Related research

Keywords: Bank management ; Bank mergers ; Corporate governance ; Bank directors ; Competition;

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References

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  1. Eldenburg, Leslie & Hermalin, Benjamin E. & Weisbach, Michael S. & Wosinska, Marta, 2004. "Governance, performance objectives and organizational form: evidence from hospitals," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 527-548, September.
  2. Mehran, Hamid, 1995. "Executive compensation structure, ownership, and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 163-184, June.
  3. Hallock, Kevin F., 1997. "Reciprocally Interlocking Boards of Directors and Executive Compensation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(03), pages 331-344, September.
  4. Jensen, Michael C, 1993. " The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(3), pages 831-80, July.
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  6. Elijah Brewer, III & William E. Jackson, III & Julapa A. Jagtiana, 2000. "Impact of independent directors and the regulatory environment on bank merger prices: evidence from takeover activity in the 1990s," Working Paper Series WP-00-31, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  7. Charles P. Himmelberg & R. Glenn Hubbard & Darius Palia, 2000. "Understanding the Determinants of Managerial Ownership and the Link Between Ownership and Performance," NBER Working Papers 7209, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Baker, Malcolm & Gompers, Paul A, 2003. "The Determinants of Board Structure at the Initial Public Offering," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(2), pages 569-98, October.
  9. Eisenberg, Theodore & Sundgren, Stefan & Wells, Martin T., 1998. "Larger board size and decreasing firm value in small firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 35-54, April.
  10. Raghuram Rajan & Henri Servaes & Luigi Zingales, . "The Cost of Diversity: The Diversification Discount and Inefficient Investment," CRSP working papers 357, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  11. Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael S. Weisbach, 2001. "Boards of Directors as an Endogenously Determined Institution: A Survey of the Economic Literature," NBER Working Papers 8161, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Vafeas, Nikos, 1999. "Board meeting frequency and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 113-142, July.
  13. Renee Adams & Hamid Mehran, 2003. "Is corporate governance different for bank holding companies?," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 123-142.
  14. Adams, Renée B. & Ferreira, Daniel, 2008. "Do directors perform for pay?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 154-171, September.
  15. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
  16. Klein, April, 1998. "Firm Performance and Board Committee Structure," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 275-303, April.
  17. Boyd, John H. & Runkle, David E., 1993. "Size and performance of banking firms : Testing the predictions of theory," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 47-67, February.
  18. Yermack, David, 1996. "Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 185-211, February.
  19. Stiroh, Kevin J., 2000. "How did bank holding companies prosper in the 1990s?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(11), pages 1703-1745, November.
  20. Kole, Stacey R. & Lehn, Kenneth M., 1999. "Deregulation and the adaptation of governance structure: the case of the U.S. airline industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 79-117, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Azofra, Valentín & Santamaría, Marcos, 2011. "Ownership, control, and pyramids in Spanish commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1464-1476, June.
  2. Sailesh Tanna & Fotios Pasiouras & Matthias Nnadi, 2011. "The Effect of Board Size and Composition on the Efficiency of UK Banks," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 441-462, November.
  3. Becher, David A. & Frye, Melissa B., 2011. "Does regulation substitute or complement governance?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 736-751, March.
  4. Karima Bouaiss & Christine Marsal, 2009. "Les mécanismes internes de gouvernance dans les banques:un état de l'art," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 12(1), pages 93-126, March.
  5. Pathan, Shams, 2009. "Strong boards, CEO power and bank risk-taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1340-1350, July.
  6. Stancic, Predrag & Todorovic, Miroslav & Cupic, Milan, 2012. "Value-Based Management and Corporate Governance: a Study of Serbian Corporations," MPRA Paper 42202, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Andres, Pablo de & Vallelado, Eleuterio, 2008. "Corporate governance in banking: The role of the board of directors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2570-2580, December.
  8. Shams Pathan & Michael Skully & J. Wickramanayake, 2007. "Board Size, Independence and Performance: An Analysis of Thai Banks," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 211-227, September.
  9. Agoraki, Maria-Eleni & Delis, Manthos D & Staikouras, Panagiotis, 2009. "The effect of board size and composition on bank efficiency," MPRA Paper 18548, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Alessandro Carretta & Vincenzo Farina & Paola Schwizer, 2010. "Assessing effectiveness and compliance of banking boards," Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 18(4), pages 356-369, November.
  11. Bennedsen, Morten & Kongsted, Hans Christian & Nielsen, Kasper Meisner, 2008. "The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1098-1109, June.
  12. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2012. "A primer on market discipline and governance of financial institutions for those in a state of shocked disbelief," Working Papers 12-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  13. Sofia Larmou & Nikos Vafeas, 2010. "The relation between board size and firm performance in firms with a history of poor operating performance," Journal of Management and Governance, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 61-85, February.
  14. Carmen Lorca & Juan Sánchez-Ballesta & Emma García-Meca, 2011. "Board Effectiveness and Cost of Debt," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 100(4), pages 613-631, June.
  15. Dan CHIRLESAN & Marius Constantin APOSTOAIE, 2012. "Corporate Governance within Financial Institutions: Asset or Liability?," Economics and Applied Informatics, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 1, pages 45-52.
  16. Daniel Ferreira & Tom Kirchmaier & Daniel Metzger, 2011. "Boards of Banks," FMG Discussion Papers dp664, Financial Markets Group.

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