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The liquidity trap, the real balance effect, and the Friedman rule

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  • Peter Ireland

Abstract

This paper studies the behavior of the economy and the efficacy of monetary policy under zero nominal interest rates, using a model with population growth that nests, as a special case, a more conventional specification in which there is a single infinitely lived representative agent. The paper shows that with a growing population, monetary policy has distributional effects that give rise to a real balance effect, thereby eliminating the liquidity trap. These same distributional effects, however, can also work to make many agents much worse off under zero nominal interest rates than they are when the nominal interest rate is positive.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Boston in its series Working Papers with number 05-3.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedbwp:05-3

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Keywords: Monetary policy ; Price levels;

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  1. Olivier J. Blanchard, 1984. "Debt, Deficits and Finite Horizons," NBER Working Papers 1389, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Greenwood, Jeremy & Hercowitz, Zvi & Huffman, Gregory W, 1988. "Investment, Capacity Utilization, and the Real Business Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 402-17, June.
  3. Peter N. Ireland, 2000. "Implementing the Friedman rule," Working Paper 0012, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  4. Andrew B. Abel, . "Optimal Monetary Growth," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 02-87, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
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  8. Barro, Robert J., 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?," Scholarly Articles 3451399, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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  11. Svensson, Lars E O, 1999. "How Should Monetary Policy Be Conducted In An Era Of Price Stability?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2342, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Paul R. Krugman, 1998. "It's Baaack: Japan's Slump and the Return of the Liquidity Trap," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(2), pages 137-206.
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  14. Bhattacharya, Joydeep & Haslag, Joseph & Russell, Steven, 2004. "The Role of Money in Two Alternative Models: When is the Friedman Rule Optimal, and Why?," Staff General Research Papers 11950, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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  16. Woodford, Michael, 1990. "The optimum quantity of money," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 20, pages 1067-1152 Elsevier.
  17. Buiter, Willem H, 1988. "Death, Birth, Productivity Growth and Debt Neutrality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(391), pages 279-93, June.
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  20. Freeman, Scott, 1985. "Transactions Costs and the Optimal Quantity of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(1), pages 146-57, February.
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  22. Cooley, Thomas F & Hansen, Gary D, 1989. "The Inflation Tax in a Real Business Cycle Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 733-48, September.
  23. Weil, Philippe, 1991. "Is Money Net Wealth?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 32(1), pages 37-53, February.
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  25. Woodford, Michael, 1994. "Monetary Policy and Price Level Determinacy in a Cash-in-Advance Economy," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 345-80.
  26. Harold L. Cole & Narayana R. Kocherlakota, 1998. "Zero nominal interest rates: why they're good and how to get them," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 2-10.
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Cited by:
  1. Araújo, Eurilton, 2008. "Robust Monetary Policy with the Consumption-Wealth Channel," Insper Working Papers wpe_110, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
  2. Koppány, Krisztián, 2007. "Likviditási csapda és deflációs spirál egy inflációs célt követő modellben - a hitelesség szerepe
    [A liquidity trap and deflationary spiral in a model for pursuing an inflation target -
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 974-1003.
  3. Barbara Annicchiarico & Giancarlo Marini & Alessandro Piergallini, 2007. "Wealth Effects, the Taylor Rule and the Liquidity Trap," CEIS Research Paper 103, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
  4. Peter Ireland, 2005. "EconomicDynamics Interviews Peter Ireland on Money and the Business Cycle," EconomicDynamics Newsletter, Review of Economic Dynamics, vol. 7(1), November.
  5. Bhattacharya, Joydeep & Haslag, Joseph & Martin, Antoine & Singh, Rajesh, 2004. "Who is Afraid of the Friedman Rule?," Staff General Research Papers 12213, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  6. Vincent Sterk & Silvana Tenreyro, 2013. "The Transmission of Monetary Policy Operations through Redistributions and Durable Purchases," Discussion Papers 1305, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM).
  7. Firouz Gahvari, 2009. "Friedman Rule in a Model with Endogenous Growth and Cash-in-advance Constraint," CESifo Working Paper Series 2708, CESifo Group Munich.

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