Bank capital ratios across countries: why do they vary?
AbstractThis paper extends the literature on bank capital structure by modeling capital structure as a function of important public policy and bank regulatory characteristics of the home country, as well as of bank-specific variables, country-level macroeconomic conditions, and country-level financial characteristics. The model is estimated with annual data from 1992 to 2005 for an unbalanced panel of the seventy-eight largest private banks in the world headquartered in twelve industrial countries. The results indicate that bank capital ratios are significantly affected in the hypothesized directions by most of the bank-specific variables. Several of the country characteristic and policy variables are also significant with the predicted sign: Banks maintain higher capital ratios in home countries in which the bank sector is relatively smaller and in countries that practice prompt corrective actions more actively, have more stringent capital requirements, and have more effective corporate governance structures.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its series Working Paper with number 2008-27.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Elijah Brewer III & George Kaufman & Larry Wall, 2008. "Bank Capital Ratios Across Countries: Why Do They Vary?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 177-201, December.
- NEP-ALL-2009-01-10 (All new papers)
- NEP-BAN-2009-01-10 (Banking)
- NEP-CBA-2009-01-10 (Central Banking)
- NEP-MAC-2009-01-10 (Macroeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2000. "Financial structure and bank profitability," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2430, The World Bank.
- Gerard Caprio & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2003.
"Governance and Bank Valuation,"
NBER Working Papers
10158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wall, Larry D. & Peterson, David R., 1995.
"Bank holding company capital targets in the early 1990s: The regulators versus the markets,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 563-574, June.
- Larry D. Wall & David R. Peterson, 1994. "Bank holding company capital targets in the early 1990s: the regulators versus the markets," Working Paper 94-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Barrios, Victor E. & Blanco, Juan M., 2003. "The effectiveness of bank capital adequacy regulation: A theoretical and empirical approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 1935-1958, October.
- David A. Marshall & Edward S. Prescott, 2000.
"Bank capital regulation with and without state-contingent penalties,"
Working Paper Series
WP-00-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Marshall, David A. & Prescott, Edward Simpson, 2001. "Bank capital regulation with and without state-contingent penalties," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 139-184, June.
- Samu Peura & Jussi Keppo, 2006. "Optimal Bank Capital with Costly Recapitalization," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 2163-2202, July.
- Allen N. Berger & Richard J. Herring & Giorgio P. Szegö, 1995.
"The Role of Capital in Financial Institutions,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
95-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Berger, Allen N, 1995.
"The Relationship between Capital and Earnings in Banking,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 432-56, May.
- Allen N. Berger, 1994. "The relationship between capital and earnings in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-2, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Allen Berger, 1994. "The Relationship Between Capital and Earnings in Banking," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-17, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-deSilanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000.
"Government Ownership of Banks,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1890, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopezde-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Government Ownership of Banks," NBER Working Papers 7620, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2001. "Government Ownership of Banks," Working Paper Series rwp01-016, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Wall, Larry D. & Peterson, David R., 1987. "The effect of capital adequacy guidelines on large bank holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 581-600, December.
- Marcus, Alan J, 1983. " The Bank Capital Decision: A Time Series-Cross Section Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1217-32, September.
- Martin CihÃ¡k & Klaus Schaeck, 2007. "Banking Competition and Capital Ratios," IMF Working Papers 07/216, International Monetary Fund.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 2002.
"Does deposit insurance increase banking system stability? An empirical investigation,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1373-1406, October.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 1999. "Does deposit insurance increase banking system stability ? An empirical investigation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2247, The World Bank.
- Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Enrica Detragiache, 2000. "Does Deposit Insurance Increase Banking System Stability? An Empirical Investigation," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1751, Econometric Society.
- Shrieves, Ronald E. & Dahl, Drew, 1992. "The relationship between risk and capital in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 439-457, April.
- Barth,James R. & Caprio,Gerard & Levine,Ross, 2008.
"Rethinking Bank Regulation,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521709309, November.
- Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Edward J. Kane, 2002.
"Deposit Insurance Around the Globe: Where Does It Work?,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 16(2), pages 175-195, Spring.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asl' & Kane, Edward J., 2001. "Depositinsurance around the globe : where does it work?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2679, The World Bank.
- Edward J. Kane & Asli Demirguc-Kunt, 2001. "Deposit Insurance Around the Globe: Where Does it Work?," NBER Working Papers 8493, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ayuso, Juan & Perez, Daniel & Saurina, Jesus, 2004. "Are capital buffers pro-cyclical?: Evidence from Spanish panel data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 249-264, April.
- Mitchell A. Petersen, 2009.
"Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 435-480, January.
- Mitchell A. Petersen, 2005. "Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches," NBER Working Papers 11280, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003.
"Bank supervision and corporate finance,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3042, The World Bank.
- Pascal Barneto & Georges Gregorio, 2011. "Normes IFRS et mesure de la performance. Étude comparative auprès des établissements bancaires européens," Post-Print hal-00646454, HAL.
- Thomas Hemmelgarn & Daniel Teichmann, 2013. "Tax Reforms and the Capital Structure of Banks," Taxation Papers 37, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
- Julien Clavier, 2011. "Transition aux normes comptables IAS/IFRS, discipline de marché et adéquation des fonds propres aux risques dans l'industrie bancaire européenne," Post-Print hal-00646838, HAL.
- Cimadomo, Jacopo & Hauptmeier, Sebastian & Zimmermann, Tom, 2012.
"Fiscal consolidations and banking stability,"
42229, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Cimadomo, Jacopo & Hauptmeier, Sebastian & Zimmermann, Tom, 2013. "Fiscal consolidations and bank balance sheets," Working Paper Series 1511, European Central Bank.
- Etienne Bordeleau & Allan Crawford & Christopher Graham, 2009. "Regulatory Constraints on Bank Leverage: Issues and Lessons from the Canadian Experience," Discussion Papers 09-15, Bank of Canada.
- Laetitia Lepetit & Amine Tarazi & Nadia Zedek, 2012. "Ultimate Ownership Structure and Bank Regulatory Capital Adjustment: Evidence from European Commercial Banks," Working Papers hal-00918579, HAL.
- Douglas Evanoff & Haluk Unal, 2008. "Introduction to the Special Issue: The Bank Structure Conference through the years," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 93-97, December.
- Maria Th. Kasselaki & Athanasios O. Tagkalakis, 2013. "Financial soundness indicators and financial crisis episodes," Working Papers 158, Bank of Greece.
- Clovis Rugemintwari, 2010. "Investigation on the Comparative Persistence and Convergence of Risk and Non-Risk Adjusted Bank Capital Ratios," Working Papers hal-00916749, HAL.
- Maurin, Laurent & Toivanen, Mervi, 2012. "Risk, capital buffer and bank lending: a granular approach to the adjustment of euro area banks," Working Paper Series 1499, European Central Bank.
- Laetitia Lepetit & Amine Tarazi & Nadia Zedek, 2012. "Bank Regulatory Capital Adjustment and Ultimate Ownership Structure: Evidence from European Commercial Banks," Working Papers hal-00918577, HAL.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Meredith Rector).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.