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Sources of Comparative Advantages in Brazil

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  • Muriel, Beatriz
  • Terra, Maria Cristina T.

Abstract

Based on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek model, this paper investigates relative factor abundance in Brazil, as revealed by its international trade. We study two different time periods: one characterized by high trade barriers (1980 to 1985) and the trade liberalization period (1990 to 1995). Two alternative methodologies are used: the estimation of factor intensity regressions on net exports and the direct computation of factor content in net exports. In the factor intensity regression, we incorporate techno- logical changes that might have occurred over time, and those turned out to be significant. Both methods yield the same results: the Brazilian in- ternational trade reveals relative abundance in capital, land and unskilled labor, and scarcity in skilled labor, with qualitatively equivalent results for the two time periods studied.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil) in its series Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) with number 658.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fgv:epgewp:658

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  1. Harkness, Jon P, 1978. "Factor Abundance and Comparative Advantage," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 68(5), pages 784-800, December.
  2. Trefler, Daniel, 1993. "International Factor Price Differences: Leontief Was Right!," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 961-87, December.
  3. Gonzaga, Gustavo & Menezes Filho, Naercio & Terra, Cristina, 2006. "Trade liberalization and the evolution of skill earnings differentials in Brazil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 345-367, March.
  4. Ronald W. Jones, 1965. "The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 557.
  5. Pedro Cavalcanti Ferreira & JosÈ Luiz Rossi, 2003. "New Evidence from Brazil on Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(4), pages 1383-1405, November.
  6. Bowen, Harry P & Leamer, Edward E & Sveikauskas, Leo, 1987. "Multicountry, Multifactor Tests of the Factor Abundance Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 791-809, December.
  7. Leamer, Edward E & Bowen, Harry P, 1981. "Cross-Section Tests of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem: Comment [Factor Abundance and Comparative Advantage]," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 1040-43, December.
  8. Edward E. Leamer, 1996. "In Search of Stolper-Samuelson Effects on U.S. Wages," NBER Working Papers, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc 5427, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Kahn, J. & Lim, J.S., 1997. "Skilled Labor-Augmenting Technical Progress in U.S. Manufacturing," RCER Working Papers, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER) 437, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  10. Leamer, Edward E, 1980. "The Leontief Paradox, Reconsidered," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(3), pages 495-503, June.
  11. Davis, D.R. & Weinstein, D.E., 1999. "An Account of Global Factor Trade," Working Papers, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan 435, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  12. Aw, Bee-Yan, 1983. "The interpretation of cross-section regression tests of the heckscher-ohlin theorem with many goods and factors," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 14(1-2), pages 163-167, February.
  13. Bowen, Harry P & Sveikauskas, Leo, 1992. "Judging Factor Abundance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 599-620, May.
  14. Branson, William H. & Monoyios, Nikolaos, 1977. "Factor inputs in U.S. trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 111-131, May.
  15. Ramazani, Reza M & Maskus, Keith E, 1993. "A Test of the Factor Endowments Model of Trade in a Rapidly Industrializing Country: The Case of Korea," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 75(3), pages 568-72, August.
  16. Susan Chun Zhu & Daniel Trefler, 2000. "Beyond the Algebra of Explanation: HOV for the Technology Age," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 145-149, May.
  17. Baldwin, Robert E, 1971. "Determinants of the Commodity Structure of U.S. Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 126-46, March.
  18. Gustavo Gonzaga & Naércio Menezes Filho & Cristina Terra, 2002. "Trade liberalization and evolution of skill earnings differentials in Brazil," Textos para discussão, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil) 463, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
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Cited by:
  1. Fally, Thibault & Paillacar, Rodrigo & Terra, Cristina, 2010. "Economic geography and wages in Brazil: Evidence from micro-data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 155-168, January.
  2. Laura Hering, 2014. "Does Access to Foreign Markets shape Internal Migration? Evidence from Brazil," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 14-084/VI, Tinbergen Institute.

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