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Is Participation in Tourism Market an Opportunity for Everyone? Some Evidence from Italy

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Author Info

  • Cristina Bernini

    (Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy)

  • Maria Francesca Cracolici

    (Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, Italy)

Abstract

Exploring the main determinants of tourism participation at national and international level, the paper investigates if there are differences in tourism consumption behavior among Italian families which reflect disparities in their standard of living. To achieve this a Heckman model has been used on a huge sample of Italian households over the period 1997-2007. Results show that participation in the tourism market is strongly affected by the personal characteristics of individuals and that tourism consumption is an income sensitive good. The analysis reveals that tourism is generally a luxury good reflecting the disparities in the standard of living among Italian families. We have found that participation in the tourism market is affected not only by economic constraints, but also by cultural and territorial factors.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei in its series Working Papers with number 2014.17.

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Date of creation: Feb 2014
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Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2014.17

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Keywords: Tourism Consumption; Income Elasticity; Household Characteristics; Domestic and International Travels; Standard of Living;

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  1. Melenberg, B. & Soest, A.H.O. van, 1991. "Parametric and semi-parametric modelling of vacation expenditures," Discussion Paper 1991-44, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  2. van Soest, Arthur & Kooreman, Peter, 1987. "A Micro-econometric Analysis of Vacation Behaviour," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(3), pages 215-26, July.
  3. Thanos Mergoupis & Max Steuer, 2003. "Holiday taking and income," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(3), pages 269-284.
  4. Michael J. Hay & Kenneth E. McConnell, 1979. "An Analysis of Participation in Nonconsumptive Wildlife Recreation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 55(4), pages 460-471.
  5. Riccardo Massari & Maria Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2009. "A dwindling middle class? Italian evidence in the 2000s," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 333-350, December.
  6. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  7. Blundell, Richard & Pashardes, Panos & Weber, Guglielmo, 1993. "What Do We Learn About Consumer Demand Patterns from Micro Data?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 570-97, June.
  8. Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-33, March.
  9. Juan Eugenio-Martin & Juan Campos-Soria, 2011. "Income and the substitution pattern between domestic and international tourism demand," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(20), pages 2519-2531.
  10. Dora L. Costa, 1999. "American Living Standards: Evidence from Recreational Expenditures," NBER Working Papers 7148, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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