The Environmental Kuznets Curve: a Survey of the Literature
AbstractIn the last few years, several studies have found an inverted-U relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation. This relationship, known as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), suggests that environmental degradation increases in the early stages of growth, but it eventually decreases as income exceeds a threshold level. The present paper reviews both early and recent contributions on this subject, discussing whether and to what extent such a curve can be empirically observed, and the policy implications that derive from the empirical evidence
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei in its series Working Papers with number 1999.85.
Date of creation: Oct 1999
Date of revision:
Environmental Kuznets Curve; Growth; Pollution;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
- O5 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies
- Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
- Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water
- Q32 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cole, M.A. & Rayner, A.J. & Bates, J.M., 1997. "The environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 401-416, November.
- Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S. & Barbier, Edward B., 1996. "Economic growth and environmental degradation: The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainable development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1151-1160, July.
- Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
- Beckerman, Wilfred, 1992. "Economic growth and the environment: Whose growth? whose environment?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 481-496, April.
- Vincent, Jeffrey R., 1997. "Testing for environmental Kuznets curves within a developing country," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 417-431, November.
- CARSON, RICHARd T. & JEON, YONGIL & McCUBBIN, DONALD R., 1997. "The relationship between air pollution emissions and income: US Data," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 433-450, November.
- Kaufmann, Robert K. & Davidsdottir, Brynhildur & Garnham, Sophie & Pauly, Peter, 1998. "The determinants of atmospheric SO2 concentrations: reconsidering the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 209-220, May.
- Komen, Marinus H.C. & Gerking, Shelby & Folmer, Henk, 1997. "Income and environmental R D: empirical evidence from OECD countries," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 505-515, November.
- Shafik, Nemat, 1994. "Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 757-73, Supplemen.
- de Bruyn, S. M. & van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. & Opschoor, J. B., 1998. "Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 161-175, May.
- Barbier, Edward B., 1997.
"Introduction to the environmental Kuznets curve special issue,"
Environment and Development Economics,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 369-381, November.
- Barbier, Edward B., 1997. "Introduction to the environmental Kuznets curve special issue," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 357-367, November.
- Aggarwal, Rimjhim M., 2005. "Globalization, Local Ecosystems, and the Rural Poor," Working Paper Series RP2005/28, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Auci, Sabrina & Becchetti, Leonardo, 2006. "The instability of the adjusted and unadjusted environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 282-298, November.
- Bousquet, Alain & Favard, Pascal, 2000. "Does S. Kuznets' Belief Question the Environment Kuznets Curves?," IDEI Working Papers 107, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Luisito Bertinelli & Eric Strobl & Benteng Zou, 2008.
"Sustainable Economic Development and the Environment: Theory and Evidence,"
CREA Discussion Paper Series
08-06, Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg.
- Bertinelli, Luisito & Strobl, Eric & Zou, Benteng, 2012. "Sustainable economic development and the environment: Theory and evidence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1105-1114.
- BERTINELLI, Luisito & STROBL, Eric & ZOU, Benteng, 2006. "Sustainable economic development and the environment: theory and evidence," CORE Discussion Papers 2006057, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Luisito Bertinelli & Eric Strobl & Benteng Zou, 2005. "Sustainable economic development and the environment: Theory and evidence," Working Papers 369, Bielefeld University, Center for Mathematical Economics.
- Bagliani Marco & Bravo Giangiacomo & Dalmazzone Silvana, 2006. "A Consumption-based Approach to Environmental Kuznets Curves Using the Ecological Footprint Indicatory," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 200601, University of Turin.
- Jalan, Jyotsna & Somanathan, E., 2008. "The importance of being informed: Experimental evidence on demand for environmental quality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 14-28, August.
- Di Vita, Giuseppe, 2008. "Capital accumulation, interest rate, and the income-pollution pattern. A simple model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 225-235, March.
- Annegrete Bruvoll & Taran F�hn & Birger Str¯m, 2003.
"Quantifying Central Hypotheses on Environmental Kuznets Curves for a Rich Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Study,"
Scottish Journal of Political Economy,
Scottish Economic Society, vol. 50(2), pages 149-173, 05.
- Annegrete Bruvoll & Taran Fæhn & Birger Strøm, 2003. "Quantifying Central Hypotheses on Environmental Kuznets Curves for a Rich Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Study," Discussion Papers 341, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
- Egli, Hannes, 2001. "Are cross-country studies of the Environmental Kuznets Curve misleading? New evidence from time series data for Germany," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Diskussionspapiere 10/2001, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Faculty of Law and Economics.
- Anna Kukla-Gryz, 2006. "Use of structural equation modeling to examine the relationships between growth, trade and the environment in developing countries," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 327-342.
- Jyotsna Jalan & E.Somanathan, 2004. "Being informed matters: Experimental evidence on the demand for environmental quality," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 04-08, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
- Itaya, Jun-ichi, 2008. "Can environmental taxation stimulate growth? The role of indeterminacy in endogenous growth models with environmental externalities," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 1156-1180, April.
- Daigee Shaw & Arwin Pang & Chang-Ching Lin & Ming-Feng Hung, 2010. "Economic growth and air quality in China," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 12(3), pages 79-96, September.
- Chiara Martini, 2006. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 3, July.
- Tanger, Shaun M. & Zeng, Peng & Morse, Wayde & Laband, David N., 2011. "Macroeconomic conditions in the U.S. and congressional voting on environmental policy: 1970-2008," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(6), pages 1109-1120, April.
- Subhash C. Ray & Kankana Mukherjee, 2007. "Efficiency in Managing the Environment and the Opportunity Cost of Pollution Abatement," Working papers 2007-09, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
- Hiroyuki Taguchi & Takashi Yoshida, 2010. "Environment Pollution Control : Advantage or Disadvantage for Latecomer's Economies in East Asia?," Microeconomics Working Papers 23079, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Blackman, Allen & Nelson, Per-Kristian & Mathis, Mitchell, 2001. "The Greening of Development Economics: A Survey," Discussion Papers dp-01-08, Resources For the Future.
- Bagliani, Marco & Bravo, Giangiacomo & Dalmazzone, Silvana, 2008. "A consumption-based approach to environmental Kuznets curves using the ecological footprint indicator," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 650-661, April.
- Marzio Galeotti, 2003. "Economic Development and Environmental Protection," Working Papers 2003.89, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (barbara racah).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.