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The Environmental Regime in Developing Countries

In: Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy

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  • Raghbendra Jha
  • John Whalley

Abstract

This paper discusses the environmental externalities that are commonly found in the developing world (the environmental regime) along with the policy responses, if any, commonly used to deal with these. Included are the effects of industrial emissions, air and water quality impacts of untreated waste (industrial and human waste), congestion effects of traffic, soil erosion, and open access resource problems (including forests). We note the tendency in much literature of the last few years to equate environmental problems in developing countries with pollutants (or emissions). The paper argues that to discuss environmental problems in developing countries (or to compare with developed countries) without reference to degradation as well as pollutants is incomplete; the effects of the former are large and pervasive, and their severity and interaction with economic process often differs sharply from that of pollutants. The paper concludes with a discussion of how environmental policy in developing countries differs from that found in developed countries in light of our focus on degradation effects.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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This chapter was published in:

  • Carlo Carraro & Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2001. "Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number carr01-1, October.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 10610.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:10610

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    References

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    1. Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
    2. Cropper, Maureen & Griffiths, Charles, 1994. "The Interaction of Population Growth and Environmental Quality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 250-54, May.
    3. Alfsen, Knut H. & De Franco, Mario A. & Glomsrod, Solveig & Johnsen, Torgeir, 1996. "The cost of soil erosion in Nicaragua," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 129-145, February.
    4. Matsuyama, Kiminori, 1992. "Agricultural productivity, comparative advantage, and economic growth," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 317-334, December.
    5. Kaufmann, Robert K. & Davidsdottir, Brynhildur & Garnham, Sophie & Pauly, Peter, 1998. "The determinants of atmospheric SO2 concentrations: reconsidering the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 209-220, May.
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    9. Komen, Marinus H.C. & Gerking, Shelby & Folmer, Henk, 1997. "Income and environmental R D: empirical evidence from OECD countries," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 505-515, November.
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    12. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1996. "Environmental degradation and the demand for children : searching for the vicious circle," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1623, The World Bank.
    13. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 755-87, August.
    14. Edward Barbier, 1999. "Endogenous Growth and Natural Resource Scarcity," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 14(1), pages 51-74, July.
    15. Ko, Il-Dong & Lapan, Harvey E. & Sandler, Todd, 1992. "Controlling stock externalities : Flexible versus inflexible Pigovian corrections," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1263-1276, August.
    16. Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001. "Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
    17. P Ekins, 1997. "The Kuznets curve for the environment and economic growth: examining the evidence," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(5), pages 805-830, May.
    18. Shafik, Nemat & Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit, 1992. "Economic growth and environmental quality : time series and cross-country evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 904, The World Bank.
    19. Antle, John M & Heidebrink, Gregg, 1995. "Environment and Development: Theory and International Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(3), pages 603-25, April.
    20. Torras, Mariano & Boyce, James K., 1998. "Income, inequality, and pollution: a reassessment of the environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 147-160, May.
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    22. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1995. "Trade and Transboundary Pollution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 716-37, September.
    23. James Andreoni & Arik Levinson, 1998. "The Simple Analytics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," NBER Working Papers 6739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Aslanidis, Nektarios & Xepapadeas, Anastasios, 2008. "Regime switching and the shape of the emission-income relationship," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 731-739, July.
    2. Bayou Demeke & Ian Coxhead, 2005. "The Effect of National Policies and Labor Market on Land Use Decisions in Developing Countries: An Application of Maximum Simulated Likelihood to System of Censored Acreages with Panel Data," Others 0503007, EconWPA.
    3. B.S., Min, 2001. "Regional cooperation for control of transboundary air pollution in East Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 137-153.
    4. Arief Anshory Yusuf, 2005. "Who Pay for the Cleaner Air? Distributional Impact of Environmental Policy in a Dualistic Economy," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 200502, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Feb 2005.
    5. Jha, Raghbendra & Bhanu Murthy, KV, 2001. "An Inverse Global Environmental Kuznets Curve," Departmental Working Papers 2001-02, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    6. Coxhead, Ian, 2002. "Development and the Environment in Asia: A Survey of Recent Literature," Staff Paper Series 455, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    7. Raghbendra Jha & K.V. Bhanu Murthy, 2004. "A Consumption Based Human Development Index and The Global Environmental Kuznets Curve," ASARC Working Papers 2004-01, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    8. Raghbendra Jha, 2004. "Alleviating Environmental Degradation in the Asia-Pacific Region: International cooperation and the role of issue-linkage," Departmental Working Papers 2005-01, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    9. Perez, Oren, 2002. "The Many Faces of the Trade-Environment Conflict: Some Lessons for the Constitutionalization Project," European Integration online Papers (EIoP), European Community Studies Association Austria (ECSA-A), vol. 6, 07.

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