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L’effet pro-concurrentiel de l’intégration européenne : une analyse de l’évolution des taux de marge dans les industries manufacturières françaises

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Author Info

  • Flora Bellone

    (Université de Nice)

  • Patrick Musso

    (CNRS)

  • Lionel Nesta

    (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Économiques)

  • Frédéric Warzynski

    (Aarhus School of Business)

Abstract

En situation de concurrence pure et parfaite, les décisions par les entreprises de quantité produites et d’utilisation des facteurs s’effectuent en égalisant le prix du marché de bien final avec le coût marginal. En situation de concurrence imparfaite, cette égalisation n’est plus respectée, les firmes ayant intérêt d’utiliser leur pouvoir de marché pour fixer un prix au-delà de leur coût marginal. Dans cet article, nous mesurons les taux de marge, définis comme l’écart en pourcentage entre le prix de vente et le coût marginal, à partir de données d’entreprises pour 14 industries manufacturières françaises de 1986 à 2004. Nous observons que le taux de marge moyen, sur l’ensemble de la période et sur l’ensemble des industries, est de 13,8%, ce qui est légèrement supérieur au Royaume-Uni. Nous trouvons que la mise en place du marché commun a conduit à une diminution de 4 à 5% des marges, alors que l’entrée en vigueur de l’Euro a constitué une opportunité pour les entreprises des secteurs de l’habillement et de l’automobile d’augmenter leurs marges d’environ 2%. Les taux de marge français sont contra-cycliques, et sont significativement déterminés par la configuration industrielle en termes d’ouverture au commerce internationale, de concentration industrielle et d’intensités capitalistique et technologique. Enfin, ces faits stylisés cachent une diversité sectorielle importante, qui révèle des pratiques de détermination des prix éminemment spécifiques aux secteurs.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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Paper provided by Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE) in its series Documents de Travail de l'OFCE with number 2008-09.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:0809

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