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La Place De La Notion De Chômage Involontaire Dans La Théorie Keynésienne De L’Emploi

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  • Alain Béraud

    ()
    (Théma, UMR 8184, Université de Cergy-Pontoise - 33, boulevard du Port 95011 Cergy-Pontoise, Cedex)

Abstract

La notion de chômage involontaire a longtemps occupé dans la théorie économique un rôle central. L’expression apparaît très tôt, dès le début du 20ème siècle, quand les économistes commencèrent à s’intéresser au chômage. Elle désigne simplement les chômeurs qui accepteraient de travailler au taux de salaire courant. Keynes donna de cette expression une définition différente, beaucoup plus étroite. Le chômage involontaire est, selon lui, le chômage qui trouve son origine dans l’insuffisance de la demande de biens. Au début des années 1970, Phelps, Alchian et Holt lui opposèrent une analyse où les agents ne disposent que d’une information imparfaite sur les salaires et les emplois. Leur idées furent reprises et développées notamment par Diamond, Mortensen et Pissarides. Dans la théorie du chômage d’équilibre, l’opposition entre chômage volontaire et chômage involontaire n’a pas de sens, que l’on définisse le chômage involontaire comme le faisait Keynes ou, plus simplement, comme l’offre de travail excédentaire. Mais, plus fondamentalement, ce que cette approche rejette c’est l’idée que l’on peut faire abstraction du « chômage frictionnel » dans l’analyse de la détermination du niveau de l’emploi. La décomposition du chômage en une série de catégories — frictionnel, cyclique, volontaire, involontaire… — n’est pas susceptible de nous aider dans une analyse théorique ou empirique du chômage.

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Paper provided by THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise in its series THEMA Working Papers with number 2008-16.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ema:worpap:2008-16

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Keywords: Chômage volontaire; chômage involontaire; chômage d’équilibre; solution de marchandage de Nash; rigidité des salaires; fonction d’appariement; Keynes; Beveridge; Phelps; Diamond; Mortensen; Pissarides.;

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  1. Mortensen, Dale T & Pissarides, Christopher A, 1994. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 397-415, July.
  2. Blanchard, Olivier J & Galí, Jordi, 2005. "Real Wage Rigidities and the New Keynesian Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 5375, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  7. Laidler,David, 1999. "Fabricating the Keynesian Revolution," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521645966.
  8. Mortensen, Dale T. & Pissarides, Christopher A., 1999. "Job reallocation, employment fluctuations and unemployment," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 18, pages 1171-1228 Elsevier.
  9. Ch. Pissarides., 2011. "The Unemployment Volatility Puzzle: Is Wage Stickiness the Answer?," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 1.
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  13. Robert Shimer, 2005. "The Cyclical Behavior of Equilibrium Unemployment and Vacancies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 25-49, March.
  14. Diamond, Peter A, 1982. "Wage Determination and Efficiency in Search Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(2), pages 217-27, April.
  15. Peter A. Diamond & Eric Maskin, 1979. "An Equilibrium Analysis of Search and Breach of Contract, I: Steady States," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 282-316, Spring.
  16. Mauro Boianovsky & Hans-Michael Trautwein, 2001. "Wicksell, Cassel and the Idea of Involuntary Unemployment," Anais do XXIX Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 29th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 015, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  17. Nash, John, 1953. "Two-Person Cooperative Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 21(1), pages 128-140, April.
  18. Yellen, Janet L, 1984. "Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 200-205, May.
  19. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1978. "Unemployment Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 353-57, May.
  20. Nash, John, 1950. "The Bargaining Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 18(2), pages 155-162, April.
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