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The Genesis of Venture Capital: Lessons from the German Experience

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  • Becker, Ralf

    (Stanford U)

  • Hellmann, Thomas F.

Abstract

Why does venture capital work in some countries but not in others? This clinical study of the first German venture capital firm examines the difficulties of creating a venture capital market in a bank-based financial system. The analysis identifies the problem of creating appropriate governance structures to protect investor returns. It exposes the difficulties of established banks - not to mention government - to devise venture investment strategies. It identifies the availability of high quality entrepreneurs as a critical complement. And it provides a reinterpretation of the hypothesis of Black and Gilson (1997), arguing that the existence of an active stock market is a necessary, but by no means sufficient condition for the development of venture capital.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Stanford University, Graduate School of Business in its series Research Papers with number 1705.

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Date of creation: Jul 2000
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Handle: RePEc:ecl:stabus:1705

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References

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  1. Paul A. Gompers & Josh Lerner, 1999. "What Drives Venture Capital Fundraising?," NBER Working Papers 6906, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Strömberg, 2000. "Financial Contracting Theory Meets the Real World: An Empirical Analysis of Venture Capital Contracts," CRSP working papers 513, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  3. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Working Paper 19443, Harvard University OpenScholar.
  4. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, 02.
  5. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  6. Fama, Eugene F., 1985. "What's different about banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 29-39, January.
  7. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1994. "Complementarities and systems: Understanding japanese economic organization," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 9(1), pages 3-42.
  8. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
  9. Bhattacharya Sudipto & Thakor Anjan V., 1993. "Contemporary Banking Theory," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 2-50, October.
  10. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 1999. "Institutions, financial markets, and firm debt maturity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 295-336, December.
  11. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "The Economics of Modern Manufacturing: Technology, Strategy, and Organization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 511-28, June.
  12. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1995. "Complementarities and fit strategy, structure, and organizational change in manufacturing," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 179-208, April.
  13. Black, Bernard S. & Gilson, Ronald J., 1998. "Venture capital and the structure of capital markets: banks versus stock markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 243-277, March.
  14. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  15. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  16. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1997. "Financial System Architecture," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 693-733.
  17. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-18, March.
  18. Hellmann, Thomas & Puri, Manju, 2000. "The Interaction between Product Market and Financing Strategy: The Role of Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 959-84.
  19. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," NBER Working Papers 6625, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Admati, Anat R & Pfleiderer, Paul, 1994. " Robust Financial Contracting and the Role of Venture Capitalists," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 371-402, June.
  21. Gompers, Paul A, 1995. " Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1461-89, December.
  22. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1985. "Credit Markets and the Control of Capital," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(2), pages 133-52, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Michael Fritsch & Dirk Schilder, 2010. "The Regional Supply of Venture Capital - Can Syndication overcome Bottlenecks?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2010-069, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  2. Feldman, Maryann & Martin, Roger, 2005. "Constructing jurisdictional advantage," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1235-1249, October.
  3. Keuschnigg, Christian, 2003. "Optimal Public Policy for Venture Capital Backed Innovation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Laura Bottazzi & Marco da Rin, 2003. "Financing Entrepreneurial Firms in Europe: Facts, Issues, and Research Agenda," CESifo Working Paper Series 958, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Bock, Carolin & Watzinger, Martin, 2011. "The capital gains tax: A curse but also a blessing for venture capital investment," CEFS Working Paper Series 2011-04, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
  6. Thomas Hellman & Laura Lindsey & Manju Puri, 2004. "Building Relationships Early: Banks in Venture Capital," NBER Working Papers 10535, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Erik Lehmann, 2006. "Does Venture Capital Syndication Spur Employment Growth and Shareholder Value? Evidence from German IPO Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(5), pages 455-464, 06.
  8. John Armour, 2002. "Law, Innovation and Finance: A Review," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp243, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
  9. Andrea Schertler, 2002. "Path Dependencies in Venture Capital Markets," Kiel Working Papers 1120, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  10. Adeline Saillard & Thomas Url, 2011. "Venture capital in bank - and market - based economies," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00593962, HAL.
  11. Goergen, M. & Khurshed, A. & McCahery, J.A. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2002. "The Rise and Fall of the European New Markets: On the Short and Long-Run Performance of High-Tech Initial Public Offerings," Discussion Paper 2002-101, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  12. Christian Schröder, 2009. "Financial System and Innovations: Determinants of Early Stage Venture Capital in Europe," EIIW Discussion paper disbei167, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  13. Andrea Schertler, 2002. "Under What Conditions Do Venture Capital Markets Emerge?," Kiel Working Papers 1119, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  14. David B. Audretsch & Erik E. Lehmann, 2004. "Financing High-Tech Growth: The Role of Debt or Equity," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-19, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  15. Adeline Saillard & Thomas Url, 2011. "Venture capital in bank - and market - based economies," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 11025, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  16. Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki & Hyytinen, Ari & Liukkonen, Johanna, 2001. "Exiting Venture Capital Investments: Lessons from Finland," Discussion Papers 781, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  17. Christian Keuschnigg, 2003. "Public Policy and Venture Capital Backed Innovation," CESifo Working Paper Series 1066, CESifo Group Munich.
  18. Gil Avnimelech & Morris Teubal, 2004. "Strength of Market Forces and the Successful Emergence of Israel's Venture Capital Industry. Insights from a Policy-Led Case of Structural Change," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 55(6), pages 1265-1300.
  19. John Armour & Douglas Cumming, 2004. "The Legal Road To Replicating Silicon Valley," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp281, ESRC Centre for Business Research.

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