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Does Reducing Spatial Differentiation Increase Product Differentiation? Effects of Zoning on Retail Entry and Format Variety

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    Abstract

    This paper investigates the impact of spatial zoning restrictions on retail market outcomes. We estimate a structural model of entry, location and format choice across a large number of markets in the presence of zoning restrictions. The paper contributes to the literature in three ways: First, the paper demonstrates that the omission of zoning restrictions in the extant literature on entry and location choice leads to biased estimates of the factors affecting market potential and competitive intensity. Second, the cross-market variations in zoning regulations helps us test and provide evidence for the theory that constraints on spatial differentiation will lead to greater product differentiation. Finally, we provide qualitative insight on how zoning impacts retail entry and format variety; in particular we evaluate the impact of prototypical zoning arrangements such as "centralized," "neighborhood," and "outskirt" zoning on entry and format variety.

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    File URL: http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/P/cd/d18b/d1851.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University in its series Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers with number 1851.

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    Length: 49 pages
    Date of creation: Mar 2012
    Date of revision: Sep 2012
    Handle: RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:1851

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    Postal: Yale University, Box 208281, New Haven, CT 06520-8281 USA
    Phone: (203) 432-3702
    Fax: (203) 432-6167
    Web page: http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/
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    Postal: Cowles Foundation, Yale University, Box 208281, New Haven, CT 06520-8281 USA

    Related research

    Keywords: Product Variety; Zoning; Entry; Location Choice; Retail Competition; Discrete Games; Multiple Equilibria; Structural Modeling;

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

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    1. Bajari, Patrick & Benkard, C. Lanier & Levin, Jonathan, 2007. "Estimating Dynamic Models of Imperfect Competition," Research Papers 1852r1, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    2. Junichi Suzuki, 2013. "Land Use Regulation As A Barrier To Entry: Evidence From The Texas Lodging Industry," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 54(2), pages 495-523, 05.
    3. Victor Aguirregabiria & Pedro Mira, 2005. "A Genetic Algorithm for the Structural Estimation of Games with Multiple Equilibria," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2005-001, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    4. Heski Bar-Isaac & Guillermo Caruana & Vicente Cuñat, 2009. "Costly search and design," Economics Working Papers 1155, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    5. Ariel Pakes & Michael Ostrovsky & Steve Berry, 2004. "Simple Estimators for the Parameters of Discrete Dynamic Games (with Entry/Exit Examples)," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2036, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    6. Michaela Draganska & Michael Mazzeo & Katja Seim, 2009. "Beyond plain vanilla: Modeling joint product assortment and pricing decisions," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 105-146, June.
    7. Hiroyuki Kasahara & Katsumi Shimotsu, 2008. "Sequential Estimation of Structural Models with a Fixed Point Constraint," CESifo Working Paper Series 2507, CESifo Group Munich.
    8. Elie Tamer & Federico Ciliberto, 2004. "Market Structure and Multiple Equilibria in Airline Markets," 2004 Meeting Papers 52, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    9. Paul B. Ellickson & Stephanie Houghton & Christopher Timmins, 2010. "Estimating Network Economies in Retail Chains: A Revealed Preference Approach," NBER Working Papers 15832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Victor Aguirregabiria & Pedro Mira, 2007. "Sequential Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(1), pages 1-53, 01.
    11. Mitsukuni Nishida, 2008. "Estimating a Model of Strategic Store-Network Choice," Working Papers 08-27, NET Institute, revised Nov 2008.
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