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In Defence of the Linear Model: An Essay

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  • Margherita Balconi

    (University of Pavia, Pavia - Italy)

  • Stefano Brusoni

    (CESPRI Bocconi University, Milan, Italy)

  • Luigi Orsenigo

    (University of Brescia, Brescia - Italy; CESPRI Bocconi University, Milan - Italy and Open University, U.K.)

Abstract

This paper has been prompted by an increasing sense of dissatisfaction with the current fashion of criticising the so-called “Linear Model” of innovation. LM). The frequency and hostility of remarks against the linear model raises the suspicion that something is wrong indeed. Why so much hostility to a concept that is unanimously recognised to be false and discredited? Is it only a (repetitive and abused) rhetorical device? Or does the LM still maintain a credibility in scientific research and policy-making that makes it useful or even necessary to constantly remind its deep shortcomings? If this is the case, why is it that despite all the evidence, the LM continues to be so influential in the policy debate? The sense of uneasiness and dissatisfaction is compounded by the recognition that it is quite hard to find in the critical literature a precise definition of the so called linear model. To a considerable extent, the LM is just a straw man around which a set of arguments is constructed concerning the process of technological innovation and the implied policy prescriptions. In this paper, we seek to probe the deep reasons of our dissatisfaction with undisciplined critiques to the “infamous” linear model and to clarify what are the main and most relevant problems that indeed the LM suffers from. Moreover, we ask whether at least some features of the linear model retain some interpretative and normative validity and if a complete and outright rejection of the LM would amount to throw the baby away with the dirty water

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy in its series KITeS Working Papers with number 216.

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Length: pages 37
Date of creation: Jan 2008
Date of revision: Apr 2008
Handle: RePEc:cri:cespri:wp216

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Keywords: linear model; innovation; chain model; life sciences; sciences of the artificial;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Luca Berchicci & Jeroen P.J. de Jong & Mark Freel, 2013. "Remote Collaboration, Absorptive Capacity, and the Innovative Output of High-tech Small Firms," DRUID Working Papers 13-01, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
  2. Barge-Gil, Andrés & López, Alberto, 2011. "R versus D: Estimating the differentiated effect of research and development on innovation results," MPRA Paper 29091, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Marco Bettiol & Vladi Finotto & Eleonora Di Maria & Stefano Micelli, 2014. "The hidden side of innovation: why tinkerers matter," Working Papers 8, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
  4. Cocchi, Andrea, 2011. "Business models as systemic instruments for the evolution of traditional districts?," MPRA Paper 33766, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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