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International R & D Spillovers between U.S. and Japanese R & D intensive sectors

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Abstract

Beaucoup d'études empiriques montrent que la structure de la production et la croissance de la productivité d'un pays dépendent de sa recherche propre. Avec l'épanouissement du commerce international, des investissements directs à l'étranger et de la diffusion internationale de la technologie, on s'attend à ce que la structure productive et les performances de productivité d'un pays dépendent également de la recherche entreprise à l'étanger. Cette étude explore dans quelle mesure il existe des liens bilatéraux de R-D entre les États-Unis et le Japon, qui affectent les choix de production, les investissements en capital physique et en R-D, et les croissances de la productivité. Nous trouvons que la production devient moins intensive en travail avec l'accroissement des externalités de la R-D. Dans le court terme, il y a une complémentarité entre la recherche propre et les externalités de la recherche étrangère. Cette relation subsiste dans le long terme aux États-Unis. Au Japon, par contre, les externalités de la R-D américaine ont tendance à réduire la recherche propre. Le stock de R-D des États-Unis explique 60% de la croissance de la productivité totale ds facteurs japonaise tandis que celle des États-Unis est due pour 20% à la recherche nippone. Les externalités internationales de la R-D rendent le taux de rendement social de la R-D quatre fois plus grand que le taux de rendement privé. A great deal of empirical evidence shows that a contry's production structure and productivity growth depend on its own R&D capital formation. With the growing role of international trade, foreign investment and international knowledge diffurion, domestic production and productivity also depend on the R&D activities of other countries. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the bilateral link between the U.S. and Japanese economies in terms of how R&D capital formation in one country affects the production structure, physical and R&D capital accumulation, and productivity growth in the other country. We find that production processes become less labor intensive as international R&D spillovers grow. In the short-run, R&D intensity is complementary to the international spillover. This relationship persists in the long-run for the U.S., but the Japanese decrease their own R&D intensity. In addition, U.S. R&D capital directly contributes to Japanese total factor productivity growth by three and a half times more than Japanese R&D capital directly contributes to U.S. productivity gains. International spillovers cause social rates of return to be around ten times the private returns.

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Paper provided by Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences économiques in its series Cahiers de recherche du Département des sciences économiques, UQAM with number 9406.

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Date of creation: May 1994
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Handle: RePEc:cre:uqamwp:9406

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