Identity Based Policies and Identity Manipulation: Evidence from Colonial Punjab
AbstractWe study identity marker based policies in the context of identity manipulation: we measure the extent of identity manipulation caused by such a policy and describe the mistargeting of public resource this can lead to in the context of colonial Punjab. In particular, we analyze the impact on caste identity manipulation of a caste based legislation, the Punjab Alienation of Land Act (1901). Using original data built from the census of Punjab from 1881 to 1921, we show, using various double and triple differences strategies, that a movement of caste identity manipulation took place in response to the law: ruling out alternative demographic interpretations, we estimate that in 20 years, 7.5% of the population that had an incentive to do so manipulated its caste identity. Using a novel data set on land ownership by caste from 1911 to 1931, we then use an accounting exercise to estimate the amount of mistargeting caused by this manipulation between 3.9% and 8.2% of the total land distributed by the government.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by CEPREMAP in its series CEPREMAP Working Papers (Docweb) with number 1306.
Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2013
Date of revision:
caste; identity; colonialism; land; public policy;
Other versions of this item:
- Guilhem Cassan, 2012. "Identity based policies and identity manipulation: evidence from Colonial Punjab," Working Papers 1214, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- N45 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - Asia including Middle East
- Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
- H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-10-25 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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"Direct versus Indirect Colonial Rule in India: Long-Term Consequences,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 92(4), pages 693-713, November.
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- Adriana Camacho & Emily Conover, 2011. "Manipulation of Social Program Eligibility," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 41-65, May.
- Xavier Fontaine & Katsunori Yamada, 2013. "Caste Comparisons: Evidence from India," ISER Discussion Paper 0867, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
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