Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs
AbstractThe cost of building rail transit facilities in the United States has skyrocketed in recent decades. Sections of Los Angelesâ€™s Red Line subway cost more than $750 million per mile to build and even less pricey light-rail systems can cost more than $200 million per mile. Soaring capital investment costs are todayâ€™s biggest deterrent, both political and financial, to constructing new transit infrastructure. It stands to reason that high-cost transit projects need high ridership levels. Without sufficient numbers of riders and the fares they generate, new rail investments will inevitably incur huge deficits. Nor will environmental benefits accrue. Transit only reduces traffic congestion and tailpipe emissions when it draws former motorists â€“ and particularly single-occupant drivers â€“ to trains and buses. A system with few riders and a high price tag is a poor investment compared to a system with many riders and a low price tag. Through the investigation of more than 50 transit investment projects built in the U.S. since 1970, we find a strong correspondence between costs and ridership. As one would expect, capital costs and ridership are positively correlated. Moreover, both ridership and capital costs typically rise with job and population densities. By clustering trip ends near stops, concentrated development tends to average far more transit trips per square mile than less concentrated development. But density often increases construction costs as well â€“ via increased costs for right-of-way acquisitions and building demolitions, more complicated route alignments, utility relocation expenses, and higher labor costs. This symbiotic relationship between density and both ridership and costs begs the question: are there densities that offer the most â€œbang for the buckâ€ in terms of the number of riders for the investment costs? If so, what minimum densities should municipalities zone for around existing or planned stations in different settings or for different types of investments? These are among the most frequently asked questions in the urban planning field today â€“ questions for which there are surprisingly few good answers or widely accepted benchmarks. This paper aims to help fill this knowledge gap.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt3535n7jt.
Date of creation: 01 Aug 2010
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 109 McLaughlin Hall, Mail Code 1720, Berkeley, CA 94720-1720
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/uctc/
More information through EDIRC
fixed guideway transit; capital cost; ridership; transit-supportive density; Social and Behavioral Sciences;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Boarnet, Marlon & Crane, Randall, 2001. "The influence of land use on travel behavior: specification and estimation strategies," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 823-845, November.
- Baum-Snow, Nathaniel & Kahn, Matthew E., 2000. "The effects of new public projects to expand urban rail transit," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 241-263, August.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.