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Let's Fix It: Fixed-b Asymptotics versus Small-b Asymptotics in Heteroscedasticity and Autocorrelation Robust Inference

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  • Sun, Yixiao

Abstract

In the presence of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation of unknown forms, the covariance matrix of the parameter estimator is often estimated using a nonparametric kernel method that involves a lag truncation parameter. Depending on whether this lag truncation parameter is specified to grow at a slower rate than or the same rate as the sample size, we obtain two types of asymptotic approximations: the small-b asymptotics and the fixed-b asymptotics. Using techniques for probability distribution approximation and high order expansions, this paper shows that the fixed-b asymptotic approximation provides a higher order refinement to the first order small-b asymptotics. This result provides a theoretical justification on the use of the fixed-b asymptotics in empirical applications. On the basis of the fixed-b asymptotics and higher order small-b asymptotics, the paper introduces a new and easy-to-use asymptotic F test that employs a finite sample corrected Wald statistic and uses an F-distribution as the reference distribution. Finally, the paper develops a bandwidth selection rule that is testing-optimal in that the bandwidth minimizes the type II error of the asymptotic F test while controlling for its type I error. Monte Carlo simulations show that the asymptotic F test with the testing-optimal bandwidth works very well in finite samples.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, UC San Diego in its series University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series with number qt8x8307rz.

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Date of creation: 01 May 2013
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsdec:qt8x8307rz

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Keywords: Physical Sciences and Mathematics; Social and Behavioral Sciences; Asymptotic expansion; F-distribution; Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Robust; long-run variance; robust standard error; testing-optimal smoothing parameter choice; type I and type II errors.;

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  1. Kiefer, Nicholas M. & Vogelsang, Timothy J., 2002. "Heteroskedasticity-Autocorrelation Robust Testing Using Bandwidth Equal To Sample Size," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(06), pages 1350-1366, December.
  2. Peter C.B. Phillips & Steven N. Durlauf, 1985. "Multiple Time Series Regression with Integrated Processes," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 768, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  3. Yixiao Sun & Peter C. B. Phillips & Sainan Jin, 2006. "Optimal Bandwidth Selection in Heteroskedasticity-Autocorrelation Robust Testing," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1545, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  4. Carlos Velasco & Peter M. Robinson, 2001. "Edgeworth expansions for spectral density estimates and studentized sample mean," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 315, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Bester, C. Alan & Conley, Timothy G. & Hansen, Christian B., 2011. "Inference with dependent data using cluster covariance estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 165(2), pages 137-151.
  6. Kiefer, Nicholas M., 2001. "Heteroskedasticity-Autocorrelation Robust Standard Errors Using the Bartlett Kernel without Truncation," Working Papers 01-13, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
  7. Davidson, James, 1994. "Stochastic Limit Theory: An Introduction for Econometricians," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774037, Octomber.
  8. Gao, Jiti & Gijbels, Irène, 2008. "Bandwidth Selection in Nonparametric Kernel Testing," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 103(484), pages 1584-1594.
  9. Sun, Yixiao, 2011. "Robust trend inference with series variance estimator and testing-optimal smoothing parameter," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 164(2), pages 345-366, October.
  10. Kiefer, Nicholas M. & Vogelsang, Timothy J., 2005. "A New Asymptotic Theory For Heteroskedasticity-Autocorrelation Robust Tests," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(06), pages 1130-1164, December.
  11. Ray, Surajit & Savin, N.E. & Tiwari, Ashish, 2009. "Testing the CAPM revisited," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 721-733, December.
  12. Surajit Ray & N. E. Savin, 2008. "The performance of heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation robust tests: a Monte Carlo study with an application to the three-factor Fama-French asset-pricing model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(1), pages 91-109.
  13. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Michael Jansson, 2004. "The Error in Rejection Probability of Simple Autocorrelation Robust Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(3), pages 937-946, 05.
  15. Donald W.K. Andrews, 1988. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 877R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 1989.
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