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Youth Smoking Uptake Progress: Price and Public Policy Effects


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  • Ross, Hana PhD
  • Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD
  • Wakefield, Melanie PhD


The increases in smoking prevalence among U.S. youth during the 1990's, and the growing evidence that adolescents become regular smokers at earlier ages, have attracted significant attention from public health officials. Preventing experimental young smokers from becoming established smokers may be the most effective way of achieving a long run reductions in smoking in the whole population. The paper addresses the gaps in knowledge about the impact of tobacco control policies on youth smoking uptake by examining the differential effects of cigarette prices, Clean Indoor Air laws, youth access laws, and other socio-economic factors on smoking uptake among nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. Five clearly defined uptake stage categories are developed in order to classify 16,815 survey participants. The results suggest that cigarette prices are negatively related to moving from lower to higher stages of smoking uptake and that higher prices have an increasing impact as an individual’s risk of smoking uptake gets larger. Youth access laws are significantly and negatively associated with moving to higher stages of smoking uptake. The effect of these restrictions is strongest for students who completed, or almost completed their uptake process as these students are more dependent on commercial sources of cigarettes. Interrupting adolescents' progress on the smoking uptake continuum substantially reduces their probability of becoming daily, addicted smokers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, UC San Francisco in its series University of California at San Francisco, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education with number qt59d1z56k.

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Date of creation: 14 Apr 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:ctcres:qt59d1z56k

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Keywords: youth; smoking incidence; tobacco control; pricing;

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  1. Jonathan Gruber, 2000. "Youth Smoking in the U.S.: Prices and Policies," NBER Working Papers 7506, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Ross, Hana PhD & Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD, 2001. "The Effect of Cigarette Prices on Youth Smoking," University of California at San Francisco, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, UC San Francisco qt8004m9n5, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, UC San Francisco.
  3. Frank J. Chaloupka & Michael Grossman, 1996. "Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking," NBER Working Papers 5740, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Decicca, P. & Kenkel, D. & Mathios, A., 2000. "Putting Out the Fires: Will Higher Taxes Reduce Youth Smoking," Papers, Aarhus School of Business - Department of Economics 00-3, Aarhus School of Business - Department of Economics.
  5. Douglas, Stratford & Hariharan, Govind, 1994. "The hazard of starting smoking: Estimates from a split population duration model," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 213-230, July.
  6. Emery, Sherry & White, Martha M. & Pierce, John P., 2001. "Does cigarette price influence adolescent experimentation?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 261-270, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Fang, Hai & Ali, Mir M. & Rizzo, John A., 2009. "Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 334-350, December.
  2. Laura Blow & Andrew Leicester & Frank Windmeijer, 2005. "Parental income and children's smoking behaviour: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey," IFS Working Papers, Institute for Fiscal Studies W05/10, Institute for Fiscal Studies.


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