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Informal Employment in Russia: Incidence, Determinants and Labor Market Segmentation

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  • H. Lehmann
  • A. Zaiceva

Abstract

This paper takes stock of informal employment in Russia analyzing its incidence and determinants. Using the regular waves and an informality supplement of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) it develops several measures of informal employment and demonstrates that the incidence varies widely across the different definitions. We also show that the determinants of informal employment are roughly stable across the different measures: workers who are males, relatively young, unskilled and employed in construction and trade and related services have a higher likelihood to have an informal job. We also take a look at the issue of labor market segmentation along the informal-formal divide by estimating an informal-formal wage gap at the means and across the entire wage distributions. We find only weak evidence for labor market segmentation in Russia when estimating an informal-formal wage gap for salaried workers at the mean. The results of quantile regressions show a wage penalty in the lower half of the distribution and no gap in the upper half for informal employees. In contrast, informal self-employed and entrepreneurs have conditional mean wages that are higher than the mean wages for the formally employed. Across the entire wage distribution, however, we find a negative wage gap in the lowest quartile and a strongly positive wage gap in the highest quartile, pointing to a segmented informal sector with a lower free entry tier and an upper rationed tier.

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Paper provided by Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna in its series Working Papers with number wp903.

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Date of creation: Sep 2013
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Handle: RePEc:bol:bodewp:wp903

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  1. Sabine Bernab? & Marco Stampini, 2008. "Labour mobility during transition: evidence from Georgia," LICOS Discussion Papers, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven 20608, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  2. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-42, March.
  3. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
  4. V. Gimpelson & A. Zudina., 2011. "Informal Workers in the Russian Economy: Who Are They and How Many?," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 10.
  5. Lehmann, Hartmut & Muravyev, Alexander, 2012. "Labor Market Institutions and Informality in Transition and Latin American Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 7035, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Slonimczyk, Fabian, 2011. "The effect of taxation on informal employment: evidence from the Russian flat tax reform," MPRA Paper 35404, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Hartmut Lehmann & Norberto Pignatti, 2008. "Informal Employment Relationships and Labor Market Segmentation in Transition Economies: Evidence from Ukraine," ESCIRRU Working Papers 3, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  8. Lehmann, Hartmut & Muravyev, Alexander & Razzolini, Tiziano & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2013. "The wage and non-wage costs of displacement in boom times: Evidence from Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 1184-1201.
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