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Aglomeración Económica y Congestión Vial: los Perjuicios por Racionamiento del Tráfico Vehicular

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  • Carlos Alberto Medina

    ()

  • carlos Eduardo Vélez

    ()

Abstract

La creciente urbanización latinoamericana de las últimas décadas ha inducido mayor demanda de vehículos y congestión de tráfico. Pretendiendo aliviar los costos de la congestión se han adoptado medidas polémicas que restringen la circulación del 20% o el 40% de los vehículos cada día de la semana laboral -en México 1988 y Bogotá 2008, “Pico y Placa”-. Para juzgar la bondad de estas medidas sobre la productividad de las aglomeraciones urbanas debe establecerse la magnitud de los perjuicios que recaen sobre los hogares afectados, para contrastarlos con los beneficios esperados. Con base en un modelo de Calidad de Vida (Life Satisfaction) se estiman los perjuicios ex–ante que esta restricción trae para los hogares de las ciudades de Bogotá y Medellín. Nuestras estimaciones revelan que cuando la medida consiste en la restricción por dos días a la semana, trae un perjuicio considerable para el hogar promedio del orden de 6.3% del ingreso per cápita del hogar en la ciudad de Bogotá, del 13.7% para los hogares de ingresos medios y altos, y se perjudica no solo a los grupos de altos ingresos sino también a hogares de ingresos bajos que utilizan el vehículo como herramienta de trabajo. La evidencia permite concluir que si los beneficios por aumento en la velocidad de circulación y reducción en la contaminación no son considerables, esta restricción radical de la circulación resultaría desaconsejable y deberían considerarse alternativas como los peajes por congestión en zonas céntricas.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 678.

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Length: 55
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:678

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Keywords: Transporte: demanda; oferta; la congestión; precios; gobierno; las políticas de regulación; planificación del transporte. Classification JEL: R41; R48;

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