Livelihood Strategies in Rural South Africa: Implications for Poverty Reduction
AbstractThis paper has the objective of identifying dominant livelihood strategies in rural South Africa. It differs from previous studies done for South Africa in that it analyses a recent large household survey; classifies livelihood strategies into four broad and eight specific livelihood strategy groups and matches them with welfare strata of rural households; and analyzes socio-economic constraints poor households face to enter into high return livelihood strategies. Two approaches are applied to achieve these objectives -stochastic dominance test and multinomial logistic regression. It finds that households that generate income from wage employment in non-farm and farm activities are better off than other households. Analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of rural households also reveals that age, labour endowment, education, and community characteristics in terms of access to basic infrastructure are some of the barriers that poor households in rural areas face to enter into high-return livelihood strategies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil with number 125411.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Rural areas; Livelihood strategies; stochastic dominance test; multinomial logistic regression; South Africa; Community/Rural/Urban Development;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2012-07-08 (Africa)
- NEP-AGR-2012-07-08 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2012-07-08 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brown, Douglas R. & Stephens, Emma C. & Ouma, James Okuro & Murithi, Festus M. & Barrett, Christopher B., 2006. "Livelihood strategies in the rural Kenyan highlands," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 1(1), December.
- Davidson, R. & Duclos, J.-Y., 1998.
"Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality,"
98a14, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
- Russell Davidson & Jean-Yves Duclos, 2000. "Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(6), pages 1435-1464, November.
- Davidson, Russell & Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1998. "Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality," Cahiers de recherche 9805, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
- Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2001. "Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 467-480, March.
- Smith, Davd Rider & Gordon, Ann & Meadows, Kate & Zwick, Karen, 2001. "Livelihood diversification in Uganda: patterns and determinants of change across two rural districts," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 421-435, August.
- Julian MAY & Michael R. CARTER, 1997.
"Poverty, Livelihood And Class In Rural South Africa,"
408, University of Wisconsin Madison, AAE.
- Carter, Michael R. & May, Julian, 1999. "Poverty, livelihood and class in rural South Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-20, January.
- MICHAEL R. CARTER & Julian May, 1997. "Poverty, Livelihood and Class in Rural South Africa," Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Papers 408, Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Department.
- Elbers, Chris & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "Intersectoral Transfer, Growth, and Inequality in Rural Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 481-496, March.
- Perret, Sylvain R. & Anseeuw, Ward & Mathebula, F., 2005. "Poverty and livelihoods in rural South Africa: Investigating diversity and dynamics of livelihoods. Case studies in Limpopo," Working Papers 60885, University of Pretoria, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development.
- Dercon, Stefan, 1998.
"Wealth, risk and activity choice: cattle in Western Tanzania,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 1-42, February.
- Stefan Dercon, 1996. "Wealth, risk and activity choices: cattle in Western Tanzania," CSAE Working Paper Series 1996-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Stefan Dercon, 1996. "Wealth, risk and activity choices: cattle in Western Tanzania," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1996-08, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Deininger, Klaus & Olinto, Pedro, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Income Diversification in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 455-465, March.
- Abdulai, Awudu & CroleRees, Anna, 2001. "Determinants of income diversification amongst rural households in Southern Mali," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 437-452, August.
- Stifel, David, 2010. "The rural non-farm economy, livelihood strategies and household welfare," Journal of Cooperatives, NCERA-210, vol. 4(1), March.
- Leibbrandt, Murray & Woolard, Christopher & Woolard, Ingrid, 2000. "The Contribution of Income Components to Income Inequality in the Rural Former Homelands of South Africa: A Decomposable Gini Analysis," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 9(1), pages 79-99, March.
- Escobal, Javier, 2001. "The Determinants of Nonfarm Income Diversification in Rural Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 497-508, March.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Quizon, Jaime & Sparrow, Robert, 2001. "Non-agricultural earnings in peri-urban areas of Tanzania: evidence from household survey data," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 385-403, August.
- von Braun, Joachim & Pandya-Lorch, Rajul, 1991. "Income sources of malnourished people in rural areas: Microlevel information and policy implications," IFPRI working papers 5, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.