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Unconventional Monetary Policy of the ECB during the Financial Crisis: An Assessment and New Evidence

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  • Jakob de Haan
  • Willem van den End
  • Jon Frost
  • Christiaan Pattipeilohy
  • Mostafa Tabbae

Abstract

We first sketch how central banks have used unconventional monetary policy measures by using three indicators based on the composition of the balance sheet of eleven central banks. Our analysis suggests that although the ECB's balance sheet has increased dramatically during the crisis, the non-standard monetary policy measures had only a moderate impact on the composition of the ECB's balance sheet compared to other central banks, such as the Fed and the Bank of England. Next, we take stock of research analysing the effects of unconventional monetary policy of the ECB after the onset of the crisis. A crucial question is to what extent these measures have been able to affect interest rates, thereby restoring the monetary policy transmission process and supporting the central bank objectives. Finally, we offer new evidence on the effectiveness of the ECB's unconventional monetary policy measures, i.e. extended liquidity provision (LTRO) and the Securities Market Programme (SMP). Our results suggest that the LTRO interventions in general had a favorable (short-term) effect on government bond yields. Changes in the SMP only had a visible downward effect on bond yields in Summer 2011, when the program was reactivated for Italy and Spain, but this effect dissipated within a few weeks.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Niels C. Thygesen & Robert N. McCauley & Guonan Ma & William R. White & Jakob de Haan & Willem van den End & Jon Frost & Christiaan Pattipeilohy & Mostafa Tabbae & Ernest Gnan & Morten Balling & Paul , 2013. "50 Years of Money and Finance: Lessons and Challenges," SUERF 50th Anniversary Volume - 50 Years of Money and Finance: Lessons and Challenges, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 1 edited by Morten Balling & Ernest Gnan.
    This item is provided by SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum in its series SUERF 50th Anniversary Volume Chapters with number 1-4.

    Handle: RePEc:erf:erfftc:1-4

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    Related research

    Keywords: Unconventional monetary policy; ECB; transmission; liquidity support; SMP;

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    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Cúrdia, Vasco & Woodford, Michael, 2011. "The central-bank balance sheet as an instrument of monetarypolicy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 54-79, January.
    2. Gert Peersman, 2012. "Effectiveness of Unconventional Monetary Policy at the Zero Lower Bound," 2012 Meeting Papers 400, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    3. Jan Willem van den End, 2012. "Liquidity stress-tester: do Basel III and unconventional monetary policy work?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(15), pages 1233-1257, August.
    4. Beirne, John & Dalitz, Lars & Ejsing, Jacob & Grothe, Magdalena & Manganelli, Simone & Monar, Fernando & Sahel, Benjamin & Sušec, Matjaž & Tapking, Jens & Vong, Tana, 2011. "The impact of the Eurosystem's covered bond purchase programme on the primary and secondary markets," Occasional Paper Series 122, European Central Bank.
    5. Paolo Angelini & Andrea Nobili & Cristina Picillo, 2011. "The Interbank Market after August 2007: What Has Changed, and Why?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(5), pages 923-958, 08.
    6. Alan S. Blinder & Michael Ehrmann & Marcel Fratzscher & Jakob De Haan & David-Jan Jansen, 2008. "Central Bank Communication and Monetary Policy: A Survey of Theory and Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(4), pages 910-45, December.
    7. de Haan,Jakob & Oosterloo,Sander & Schoenmaker,Dirk, 2012. "Financial Markets and Institutions," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107635920, Fall.
    8. Stephan Fahr & Roberto Motto & Massimo Rostagno & Frank Smets & Oreste Tristani, 2013. "A monetary policy strategy in good and bad times: lessons from the recent past," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 28(74), pages 243-288, 04.
    9. Svensson, Lars E.O., 1997. "Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets," Seminar Papers 615, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    10. Gert Peersman, 2011. "Macroeconomic Effects of Unconventional Monetary Policy in the Euro Area," CESifo Working Paper Series 3589, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Emil Stavrev & Thomas Harjes & Martin Cihák, 2009. "Euro Area Monetary Policy in Uncharted Waters," IMF Working Papers 09/185, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Dimitri Vayanos & Robin Greenwood, 2008. "Bond Supply and Excess Bond Returns," FMG Discussion Papers dp607, Financial Markets Group.
    13. Heiko Hesse & Nathaniel Frank, 2009. "The Effectiveness of Central Bank Interventions During the First Phase of the Subprime Crisis," IMF Working Papers 09/206, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Ghysels, Eric & Idier, Julien & Manganelli, Simone & Vergote, Olivier, 2013. "A high frequency assessment of the ECB Securities Markets Programme," CEPR Discussion Papers 9778, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Kilponen , Juha & Laakkonen, Helinä & Vilmunen, Jouko, 2012. "Sovereign risk, European crisis resolution policies and bond yields," Research Discussion Papers 22/2012, Bank of Finland.
    16. Leonardo Gambacorta & Boris Hofmann & Gert Peersman, 2012. "The Effectiveness of Unconventional Monetary Policy at the Zero Lower Bound: A Cross-Country Analysis," BIS Working Papers 384, Bank for International Settlements.
    17. Yacine Aït-Sahalia & Jochen Andritzky & Andreas Jobst & Sylwia Nowak & Natalia Tamirisa, 2010. "Market Response to Policy Initiatives during the Global Financial Crisis," NBER Working Papers 15809, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Vladimir Klyuev & Phil De Imus & Krishna Srinivasan, 2009. "Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies," IMF Staff Position Notes 2009/27, International Monetary Fund.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Richhild Moessner, 2014. "Effects of ECB balance sheet policy announcements on inflation expectations," DNB Working Papers 416, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    2. Ayako Saiki & Jon Frost, 2014. "How does unconventional monetary policy affect inequality? Evidence from Japan," DNB Working Papers 423, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    3. Richhild Moessner & Jakob de Haan & David-Jan Jansen, 2014. "The effect of the zero lower bound, forward guidance and unconventional monetary policy on interest rate sensitivity to economic news in Sweden," DNB Working Papers 413, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    4. SZCZERBOWICZ, Urszula, 2014. "The ECB's Unconventional Monetary Policies: Have they lowered market borrowing costs for banks and governments?," Discussion papers 14008, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

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